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FreeBSD/Linux Kernel Cross Reference
sys/Documentation/kernel-parameters.txt

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    1 July 2000                 Kernel Parameters                     v2.4.0
    2                           ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
    3 
    4 The following is a consolidated list of the kernel parameters as implemented
    5 by the __setup() macro and sorted into English Dictionary order (defined      
    6 as ignoring all punctuation and sorting digits before letters in a case
    7 insensitive manner), and with descriptions where known.
    8 
    9 The text in square brackets at the beginning of the description state the
   10 restrictions on the kernel for the said kernel parameter to be valid. The
   11 restrictions referred to are that the relevant option is valid if:
   12 
   13         ACPI    ACPI support is enabled.
   14         APIC    APIC support is enabled.
   15         APM     Advanced Power Management support is enabled.
   16         AX25    Appropriate AX.25 support is enabled.
   17         CD      Appropriate CD support is enabled.
   18         DEVFS   devfs support is enabled. 
   19         DRM     Direct Rendering Management support is enabled. 
   20         EFI     EFI Partitioning (GPT) is enabled
   21         EIDE    EIDE/ATAPI support is enabled.
   22         FB      The frame buffer device is enabled.
   23         HW      Appropriate hardware is enabled.
   24         IA-32   IA-32 aka i386 architecture is enabled.
   25         IA-64   IA-64 architecture is enabled.
   26         IP_PNP  IP DCHP, BOOTP, or RARP is enabled.
   27         ISAPNP  ISA PnP code is enabled.
   28         ISDN    Appropriate ISDN support is enabled.
   29         JOY     Appropriate joystick support is enabled.
   30         LP      Printer support is enabled.
   31         LOOP    Loopback device support is enabled.
   32         M68k    M68k architecture is enabled. 
   33         MCA     MCA bus support is enabled.
   34         MDA     MDA console support is enabled.
   35         MOUSE   Appropriate mouse support is enabled.
   36         NET     Appropriate network support is enabled.
   37         NFS     Appropriate NFS support is enabled.
   38         PARIDE  The ParIDE subsystem is enabled.
   39         PCI     PCI bus support is enabled.
   40         PCMCIA  The PCMCIA subsystem is enabled.
   41         PNP     Plug & Play support is enabled.
   42         PPT     Parallel port support is enabled.
   43         PS2     Appropriate PS/2 support is enabled.
   44         RAM     RAM disk support is enabled.
   45         SCSI    Appropriate SCSI support is enabled.
   46         SERIAL  Serial support is enabled.
   47         SMP     The kernel is an SMP kernel.
   48         SOUND   Appropriate sound system support is enabled.
   49         V4L     Video For Linux support is enabled.
   50         VGA     The VGA console has been enabled.
   51         VT      Virtual terminal support is enabled.
   52         XT      IBM PC/XT MFM hard disk support is enabled.
   53 
   54 In addition, the following text indicates that the option:
   55 
   56         BUGS=   Relates to possible processor bugs on the said processor.
   57         KNL     Is a kernel start-up parameter.
   58         BOOT    Is a boot loader parameter.
   59 
   60 Parameters denoted with BOOT are actually interpreted by the boot
   61 loader, and have no meaning to the kernel directly.
   62 
   63 Note that ALL kernel parameters listed below are CASE SENSITIVE, and that
   64 a trailing = on the name of any parameter states that that parameter will
   65 be entered as an environment variable, whereas its absence indicates that
   66 it will appear as a kernel argument readable via /proc/cmdline by programs
   67 running once the system is up.
   68 
   69         53c7xx=         [HW,SCSI] Amiga SCSI controllers.
   70 
   71         acpi=           [HW,ACPI] Advanced Configuration and Power Interface 
   72                 force   Force ACPI on, even if blacklisted platform
   73                 off     Disable ACPI
   74                 ht      Limit ACPI to boot-time LAPIC enumeration for HT,
   75                         disabling the run-time AML interpreter.
   76  
   77         ad1816=         [HW,SOUND]
   78 
   79         ad1848=         [HW,SOUND]
   80  
   81         adb_buttons=    [HW,MOUSE]
   82 
   83         adlib=          [HW,SOUND]
   84  
   85         advansys=       [HW,SCSI]
   86 
   87         aedsp16=        [HW,SOUND]
   88  
   89         aha152x=        [HW,SCSI]
   90 
   91         aha1542=        [HW,SCSI]
   92 
   93         aic7xxx=        [HW,SCSI]
   94 
   95         AM53C974=       [HW,SCSI]
   96 
   97         amijoy=         [HW,JOY] Amiga joystick support 
   98  
   99         apm=            [APM] Advanced Power Management.
  100 
  101         applicom=       [HW]
  102  
  103         arcrimi=        [HW,NET]
  104 
  105         ataflop=        [HW,M68k]
  106 
  107         atarimouse=     [HW,MOUSE] Atari Mouse.
  108 
  109         atascsi=        [HW,SCSI] Atari SCSI.
  110 
  111         awe=            [HW,SOUND]
  112  
  113         aztcd=          [HW,CD] Aztec CD driver.
  114 
  115         baycom_epp=     [HW,AX25]
  116  
  117         baycom_par=     [HW,AX25] BayCom Parallel Port AX.25 Modem.
  118 
  119         baycom_ser_fdx= [HW,AX25] BayCom Serial Port AX.25 Modem in Full
  120                         Duplex Mode.
  121 
  122         baycom_ser_hdx= [HW,AX25] BayCom Serial Port AX.25 Modem in Half
  123                         Duplex Mode.
  124 
  125         bmouse=         [HW,MOUSE,PS2] Bus mouse.
  126 
  127         bttv.card=      [HW,V4L] bttv (bt848 + bt878 based grabber cards), most
  128         bttv.radio=     important insmod options are available as kernel args too.
  129         bttv.pll=       see Documentation/video4linux/bttv/Insmod-options
  130         bttv.tuner=     and Documentation/video4linux/bttv/CARDLIST
  131 
  132         BusLogic=       [HW,SCSI]
  133 
  134         cdu31a=         [HW,CD]
  135 
  136         chandev=        [HW,NET] 
  137  
  138         cm206=          [HW,CD]
  139 
  140         com20020=       [HW,NET]
  141 
  142         com90io=        [HW,NET]
  143 
  144         com90xx=        [HW,NET]
  145 
  146         condev=         [HW]
  147  
  148         console=        [KNL] output console + comm spec (speed, control,
  149                         parity).
  150 
  151         cpia_pp=        [HW,PPT]
  152 
  153         cs4232=         [HW,SOUND]
  154 
  155         cs89x0_dma=     [HW,NET]
  156 
  157         ctc=            [HW,NET]
  158  
  159         cyclades=       [HW,SERIAL] Cyclades multi-serial port adapter.
  160  
  161         dasd=           [HW,NET]    
  162 
  163         db9=            [HW,JOY]
  164 
  165         db9_2=          [HW,JOY]
  166 
  167         db9_3=          [HW,JOY]
  168  
  169         debug           [KNL] Enable kernel debugging (events log level).
  170 
  171         decnet=         [HW,NET]
  172 
  173         devfs=          [DEVFS]
  174  
  175         digi=           [HW,SERIAL] io parameters + enable/disable command.
  176 
  177         digiepca=       [HW,SERIAL]
  178 
  179         dmascc=         [HW,AX25,SERIAL] AX.25 Z80SCC driver with DMA
  180                         support available.
  181 
  182         dmasound=       [HW,SOUND] (sound subsystem buffers).
  183 
  184         dtc3181e=       [HW,SCSI]
  185 
  186         eata=           [HW,SCSI]
  187 
  188         eda=            [HW,PS2]
  189 
  190         edb=            [HW,PS2]
  191 
  192         eicon=          [HW,ISDN] 
  193 
  194         es1370=         [HW,SOUND]
  195 
  196         es1371=         [HW,SOUND]
  197  
  198         ether=          [HW,NET] Ethernet cards parameters (irq,
  199                         base_io_addr, mem_start, mem_end, name.
  200                         (mem_start is often overloaded to mean something
  201                         different and driver-specific).
  202 
  203         fd_mcs=         [HW,SCSI]
  204 
  205         fdomain=        [HW,SCSI]
  206 
  207         floppy=         [HW]
  208 
  209         ftape=          [HW] Floppy Tape subsystem debugging options.
  210 
  211         gamma=          [HW,DRM]
  212 
  213         gc=             [HW,JOY]
  214 
  215         gc_2=           [HW,JOY]
  216          
  217         gc_3=           [HW,JOY]
  218  
  219         gdth=           [HW,SCSI]
  220 
  221         gpt             [EFI] Forces disk with valid GPT signature but
  222                         invalid Protective MBR to be treated as GPT.
  223 
  224         gscd=           [HW,CD]
  225 
  226         gus=            [HW,SOUND] 
  227  
  228         gvp11=          [HW,SCSI]
  229 
  230         hd=             [EIDE] (E)IDE hard drive subsystem geometry
  231                         (Cyl/heads/sectors) or tune parameters.
  232 
  233         hfmodem=        [HW,AX25]
  234 
  235         hisax=          [HW,ISDN]
  236 
  237         i810=           [HW,DRM]
  238 
  239         ibmmcascsi=     [HW,MCA,SCSI] IBM MicroChannel SCSI adapter.
  240 
  241         icn=            [HW,ISDN]
  242 
  243         ide?=           [HW] (E)IDE subsystem : config (iomem/irq), tuning or
  244                         debugging (serialize,reset,no{dma,tune,probe}) or
  245                         chipset specific parameters.
  246         
  247         idebus=         [HW] (E)IDE subsystem : VLB/PCI bus speed.
  248 
  249         idle=           [HW]
  250  
  251         in2000=         [HW,SCSI]
  252 
  253         init=           [KNL]
  254 
  255         initrd=         [BOOT] Specify the location of the initial ramdisk. 
  256 
  257         ip=             [IP_PNP]
  258 
  259         isapnp=         [ISAPNP] Specify RDP, reset, pci_scan and verbosity.
  260 
  261         isapnp_reserve_irq= [ISAPNP] Exclude IRQs for the autoconfiguration.
  262 
  263         isapnp_reserve_dma= [ISAPNP] Exclude DMAs for the autoconfiguration.
  264 
  265         isapnp_reserve_io= [ISAPNP] Exclude I/O ports for the autoconfiguration.
  266                                     Ranges are in pairs (I/O port base and size).
  267 
  268         isapnp_reserve_mem= [ISAPNP] Exclude memory regions for the autoconfiguration.
  269                                      Ranges are in pairs (memory base and size).
  270 
  271         isp16=          [HW,CD]
  272 
  273         iucv=           [HW,NET] 
  274 
  275         js=             [HW,JOY] Analog joystick
  276  
  277         kbd-reset       [VT]
  278 
  279         keepinitrd      [HW, ARM]
  280 
  281         load_ramdisk=   [RAM] List of ramdisks to load from floppy.
  282 
  283         lockd.udpport=  [NFS]
  284 
  285         lockd.tcpport=  [NFS]
  286 
  287         logi_busmouse=  [HW, MOUSE]
  288 
  289         lp=0            [LP]    Specify parallel ports to use, e.g,
  290         lp=port[,port...]       lp=none,parport0 (lp0 not configured, lp1 uses
  291         lp=reset                first parallel port). 'lp=0' disables the
  292         lp=auto                 printer driver. 'lp=reset' (which can be
  293                                 specified in addition to the ports) causes
  294                                 attached printers to be reset. Using
  295                                 lp=port1,port2,... specifies the parallel ports
  296                                 to associate lp devices with, starting with
  297                                 lp0. A port specification may be 'none' to skip
  298                                 that lp device, or a parport name such as
  299                                 'parport0'. Specifying 'lp=auto' instead of a
  300                                 port specification list means that device IDs
  301                                 from each port should be examined, to see if
  302                                 an IEEE 1284-compliant printer is attached; if
  303                                 so, the driver will manage that printer.
  304 
  305         ltpc=           [HW]
  306 
  307         mac5380=        [HW,SCSI]
  308 
  309         mac53c9x=       [HW,SCSI]
  310         
  311         mad16=          [HW,SOUND]
  312 
  313         maui=           [HW,SOUND]
  314  
  315         max_loop=[0-255] [LOOP] Set the maximum number of loopback devices
  316                                 that can be mounted.
  317 
  318         maxcpus=        [SMP] States the maximum number of processors that
  319                         an SMP kernel should make use of.
  320 
  321         max_scsi_luns=  [SCSI]
  322 
  323         mca-pentium     [BUGS=IA-32]
  324 
  325         mcd=            [HW,CD]
  326 
  327         mcdx=           [HW,CD]
  328 
  329         md=             [HW] RAID subsystems devices and level.
  330 
  331         mdisk=          [HW]
  332  
  333         mdacon=         [MDA]
  334 
  335         megaraid=       [HW,SCSI]
  336  
  337         mem=exactmap    [KNL,BOOT,IA-32] enable setting of an exact
  338                         e820 memory map, as specified by the user.
  339                         Such mem=exactmap lines can be constructed
  340                         based on BIOS output or other requirements.
  341 
  342         mem=nn[KMG]     [KNL,BOOT] force use of a specific amount of
  343                         memory; to be used when the kernel is not able
  344                         to see the whole system memory or for test.
  345 
  346         mem=nn[KMG]@ss[KMG]
  347                         [KNL,BOOT] Force usage of a specific region of memory
  348                         Region of memory to be used, from ss to ss+nn.
  349 
  350         mem=nn[KMG]#ss[KMG]
  351                         [KNL,BOOT,ACPI] Mark specific memory as ACPI data.
  352                         Region of memory to be used, from ss to ss+nn.
  353 
  354         mem=nn[KMG]$ss[KMG]
  355                         [KNL,BOOT,ACPI] Mark specific memory as reserved.
  356                         Region of memory to be used, from ss to ss+nn.
  357 
  358         memfrac=        [KNL]
  359 
  360         mga=            [HW,DRM]
  361 
  362         mpu401=         [HW,SOUND]
  363  
  364         msmouse=        [HW,MOUSE] Microsoft Mouse.
  365 
  366         ncr5380=        [HW,SCSI]
  367 
  368         ncr53c400=      [HW,SCSI]
  369 
  370         ncr53c400a=     [HW,SCSI]
  371 
  372         ncr53c406a=     [HW,SCSI]
  373 
  374         ncr53c8xx=      [HW,SCSI]
  375 
  376         netdev=         [NET] Ethernet cards parameters (irq,
  377                         base_io_addr, mem_start, mem_end, name.
  378                         (mem_start is often overloaded to mean something
  379                         different and driver-specific).
  380                         (cf: ether=)
  381  
  382         nfsaddrs=       [NFS]
  383 
  384         nfsroot=        [NFS] nfs root filesystem for disk-less boxes.
  385 
  386         nmi_watchdog=   [KNL,BUGS=IA-32] debugging features for SMP kernels.
  387 
  388         no387           [BUGS=IA-32] Tells the kernel to use the 387 maths
  389                         emulation library even if a 387 maths coprocessor
  390                         is present.
  391 
  392         noalign         [KNL,ARM] 
  393  
  394         noapic          [SMP,APIC] Tells the kernel not to make use of any
  395                         APIC that may be present on the system.
  396 
  397         noasync         [HW, M68K] Disables async and sync negotiation for
  398                         all devices.
  399 
  400         nocache         [ARM]
  401  
  402         nodisconnect    [HW,SCSI, M68K] Disables SCSI disconnects.
  403 
  404         nohlt           [BUGS=ARM]
  405  
  406         no-hlt          [BUGS=IA-32] Tells the kernel that the hlt
  407                         instruction doesn't work correctly and not to
  408                         use it.
  409 
  410         noisapnp        [ISAPNP] Disables ISA PnP code.
  411 
  412         noinitrd        [RAM] Tells the kernel not to load any configured
  413                         initial RAM disk.
  414 
  415         nointroute      [IA-64]
  416  
  417         no-scroll       [VGA]
  418 
  419         nosmp           [SMP] Tells an SMP kernel to act as a UP kernel.
  420 
  421         nosync          [HW, M68K] Disables sync negotiation for all devices.
  422 
  423         notsc           [BUGS=IA-32] Disable Time Stamp Counter
  424 
  425         nowb            [ARM]
  426  
  427         opl3=           [HW,SOUND]
  428 
  429         opl3sa=         [HW,SOUND]
  430 
  431         opl3sa2=        [HW,SOUND]
  432  
  433         optcd=          [HW,CD]
  434 
  435         panic=          [KNL] kernel behaviour on panic.
  436 
  437         parport=0       [HW,PPT]        Specify parallel ports. 0 disables.
  438         parport=auto                    Use 'auto' to force the driver to use
  439         parport=0xBBB[,IRQ[,DMA]]       any IRQ/DMA settings detected (the
  440                                         default is to ignore detected IRQ/DMA
  441                                         settings because of possible
  442                                         conflicts). You can specify the base
  443                                         address, IRQ, and DMA settings; IRQ and
  444                                         DMA should be numbers, or 'auto' (for
  445                                         using detected settings on that
  446                                         particular port), or 'nofifo' (to avoid
  447                                         using a FIFO even if it is detected).
  448                                         Parallel ports are assigned in the
  449                                         order they are specified on the command
  450                                         line, starting with parport0.
  451 
  452         pas2=           [HW,SOUND]
  453  
  454         pas16=          [HW,SCSI]
  455 
  456         pcbit=          [HW,ISDN]
  457 
  458         pcd.            [PARIDE]
  459 
  460         pci=option[,option...]          [PCI] various PCI subsystem options:
  461                 off                     [IA-32] don't probe for the PCI bus
  462                 bios                    [IA-32] force use of PCI BIOS, don't access
  463                                         the hardware directly. Use this if your machine
  464                                         has a non-standard PCI host bridge.
  465                 nobios                  [IA-32] disallow use of PCI BIOS, only direct
  466                                         hardware access methods are allowed. Use this
  467                                         if you experience crashes upon bootup and you
  468                                         suspect they are caused by the BIOS.
  469                 conf1                   [IA-32] Force use of PCI Configuration Mechanism 1.
  470                 conf2                   [IA-32] Force use of PCI Configuration Mechanism 2.
  471                 nosort                  [IA-32] Don't sort PCI devices according to
  472                                         order given by the PCI BIOS. This sorting is done
  473                                         to get a device order compatible with older kernels.
  474                 biosirq                 [IA-32] Use PCI BIOS calls to get the interrupt
  475                                         routing table. These calls are known to be buggy
  476                                         on several machines and they hang the machine when used,
  477                                         but on other computers it's the only way to get the
  478                                         interrupt routing table. Try this option if the kernel
  479                                         is unable to allocate IRQs or discover secondary PCI
  480                                         buses on your motherboard.
  481                 rom                     [IA-32] Assign address space to expansion ROMs.
  482                                         Use with caution as certain devices share address
  483                                         decoders between ROMs and other resources.
  484                 irqmask=0xMMMM          [IA-32] Set a bit mask of IRQs allowed to be assigned
  485                                         automatically to PCI devices. You can make the kernel
  486                                         exclude IRQs of your ISA cards this way.
  487                 lastbus=N               [IA-32] Scan all buses till bus #N. Can be useful
  488                                         if the kernel is unable to find your secondary buses
  489                                         and you want to tell it explicitly which ones they are.
  490                 assign-busses           [IA-32] Always assign all PCI bus
  491                                         numbers ourselves, overriding
  492                                         whatever the firmware may have
  493                                         done.
  494 
  495         pd.             [PARIDE]
  496 
  497         pf.             [PARIDE]
  498 
  499         pg.             [PARIDE]
  500 
  501         pirq=           [SMP,APIC] mp-table.
  502 
  503         plip=           [PPT,NET] Parallel port network link.
  504 
  505         profile=        [KNL] enable kernel profiling via /proc/profile
  506                         (param: profile step/bucket size as a power of 2)
  507 
  508         prompt_ramdisk= [RAM] List of RAM disks to prompt for floppy disk
  509                         before loading.
  510 
  511         pss=            [HW,SOUND] 
  512  
  513         pt.             [PARIDE]
  514 
  515         quiet=          [KNL] Disable log messages.
  516  
  517         r128=           [HW,DRM]
  518 
  519         raid=           [HW,RAID]
  520 
  521         ramdisk=        [RAM] Sizes of RAM disks in kilobytes [deprecated].
  522 
  523         ramdisk_blocksize=
  524                         [RAM]
  525  
  526         ramdisk_size=   [RAM] New name for the ramdisk parameter.
  527 
  528         ramdisk_start=  [RAM] Starting block of RAM disk image (so you can
  529                         place it after the kernel image on a boot floppy).
  530 
  531         reboot=         [BUGS=IA-32]
  532 
  533         reserve=        [KNL,BUGS] force the kernel to ignore some iomem area.
  534 
  535         riscom8=        [HW,SERIAL]
  536 
  537         ro              [KNL] Mount root device read-only on boot.
  538 
  539         root=           [KNL] root filesystem.
  540 
  541         rootflags=      [KNL] set root filesystem mount option string
  542 
  543         rootfstype=     [KNL] set root filesystem type
  544 
  545         rw              [KNL] Mount root device read-write on boot.
  546 
  547         S               [KNL] run init in single mode.
  548 
  549         sb=             [HW,SOUND]
  550  
  551         sbpcd=          [HW,CD] Soundblaster CD adapter.
  552 
  553         scsi_logging=   [SCSI]
  554 
  555         scsihosts=      [SCSI]
  556 
  557         sg_def_reserved_size=
  558                         [SCSI]
  559  
  560         sgalaxy=        [HW,SOUND]
  561  
  562         sim710=         [SCSI,HW]
  563  
  564         sjcd=           [HW,CD]
  565 
  566         smart2=         [HW]
  567  
  568         sonicvibes=     [HW,SOUND]
  569  
  570         sonycd535=      [HW,CD]
  571 
  572         sound=          [SOUND]
  573 
  574         soundmodem=     [HW,AX25,SOUND] Use sound card as packet radio modem.
  575 
  576         specialix=      [HW,SERIAL] Specialix multi-serial port adapter.
  577 
  578         sscape=         [HW,SOUND]
  579  
  580         st=             [HW,SCSI] SCSI tape parameters (buffers, etc.).
  581 
  582         st0x=           [HW,SCSI]
  583 
  584         stram_swap=     [HW]
  585 
  586         swiotlb=        [IA-64] Number of I/O TLB slabs.
  587  
  588         switches=       [HW, M68K]
  589 
  590         sym53c416=      [HW,SCSI]
  591 
  592         sym53c8xx=      [HW,SCSI]
  593 
  594         t128=           [HW,SCSI]
  595 
  596         tdfx=           [HW,DRM]
  597  
  598         tgfx=           [HW,JOY]
  599 
  600         tgfx_2=         [HW,JOY]
  601 
  602         tgfx_3=         [HW,JOY]
  603  
  604         tmc8xx=         [HW,SCSI]
  605 
  606         tmscsim=        [HW,SCSI]
  607 
  608         tp720=          [HW,PS2]
  609 
  610         trix=           [HW,SOUND]
  611  
  612         u14-34f=        [HW,SCSI]
  613 
  614         uart401=        [HW,SOUND]
  615 
  616         uart6850=       [HW,SOUND]
  617  
  618         usbfix          [BUGS=IA-64] 
  619  
  620         video=          [FB] frame buffer configuration.
  621 
  622         vga=            [BOOT] on ix386, select a particular video mode
  623                         (use vga=ask for menu).  This is actually a
  624                         boot loader parameter; the value is passed to
  625                         the kernel using a special protocol.  See
  626                         linux/Documentation/i386/boot.txt for information.
  627 
  628         vmhalt=         [KNL,S390]
  629 
  630         vmpoff=         [KNL,S390] 
  631  
  632         waveartist=     [HW,SOUND]
  633  
  634         wd33c93=        [HW,SCSI]
  635 
  636         wd7000=         [HW,SCSI]
  637 
  638         wdt=            [HW]
  639 
  640         xd=             [HW,XT] Original XT pre-IDE (RLL encoded) disks.
  641 
  642         xd_geo=         [HW,XT]

Cache object: e49d052e227a583e272a7c483513c0fc


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