The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System, Second Edition
Now available: The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System (Second Edition)


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FreeBSD/Linux Kernel Cross Reference
sys/emulation/ndis/subr_hal.c

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    1 /*-
    2  * Copyright (c) 2003
    3  *      Bill Paul <wpaul@windriver.com>.  All rights reserved.
    4  *
    5  * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
    6  * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
    7  * are met:
    8  * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
    9  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
   10  * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
   11  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
   12  *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
   13  * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
   14  *    must display the following acknowledgement:
   15  *      This product includes software developed by Bill Paul.
   16  * 4. Neither the name of the author nor the names of any co-contributors
   17  *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
   18  *    without specific prior written permission.
   19  *
   20  * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY Bill Paul AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
   21  * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
   22  * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
   23  * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL Bill Paul OR THE VOICES IN HIS HEAD
   24  * BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
   25  * CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
   26  * SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
   27  * INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
   28  * CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
   29  * ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF
   30  * THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
   31  *
   32  * $FreeBSD: src/sys/compat/ndis/subr_hal.c,v 1.34 2012/11/17 01:51:26 svnexp Exp $
   33  */
   34 
   35 #include <sys/param.h>
   36 #include <sys/types.h>
   37 #include <sys/errno.h>
   38 
   39 #include <sys/callout.h>
   40 #include <sys/kernel.h>
   41 #include <sys/lock.h>
   42 #include <sys/mutex.h>
   43 #include <sys/proc.h>
   44 #include <sys/sched.h>
   45 #include <sys/module.h>
   46 
   47 #include <sys/systm.h>
   48 
   49 #include <sys/bus.h>
   50 #include <sys/rman.h>
   51 #include <sys/thread2.h>
   52 
   53 #include <emulation/ndis/pe_var.h>
   54 #include <emulation/ndis/resource_var.h>
   55 #include <emulation/ndis/cfg_var.h>
   56 #include <emulation/ndis/ntoskrnl_var.h>
   57 #include <emulation/ndis/hal_var.h>
   58 
   59 static void KeStallExecutionProcessor(uint32_t);
   60 static void WRITE_PORT_BUFFER_ULONG(uint32_t *,
   61         uint32_t *, uint32_t);
   62 static void WRITE_PORT_BUFFER_USHORT(uint16_t *,
   63         uint16_t *, uint32_t);
   64 static void WRITE_PORT_BUFFER_UCHAR(uint8_t *,
   65         uint8_t *, uint32_t);
   66 static void WRITE_PORT_ULONG(uint32_t *, uint32_t);
   67 static void WRITE_PORT_USHORT(uint16_t *, uint16_t);
   68 static void WRITE_PORT_UCHAR(uint8_t *, uint8_t);
   69 static uint32_t READ_PORT_ULONG(uint32_t *);
   70 static uint16_t READ_PORT_USHORT(uint16_t *);
   71 static uint8_t READ_PORT_UCHAR(uint8_t *);
   72 static void READ_PORT_BUFFER_ULONG(uint32_t *,
   73         uint32_t *, uint32_t);
   74 static void READ_PORT_BUFFER_USHORT(uint16_t *,
   75         uint16_t *, uint32_t);
   76 static void READ_PORT_BUFFER_UCHAR(uint8_t *,
   77         uint8_t *, uint32_t);
   78 static uint64_t KeQueryPerformanceCounter(uint64_t *);
   79 static void _KeLowerIrql(uint8_t);
   80 static uint8_t KeRaiseIrqlToDpcLevel(void);
   81 static void dummy (void);
   82 
   83 #define NDIS_MAXCPUS 64
   84 static struct lock disp_lock[NDIS_MAXCPUS];
   85 
   86 int
   87 hal_libinit(void)
   88 {
   89         image_patch_table       *patch;
   90         int                     i;
   91 
   92         for (i = 0; i < NDIS_MAXCPUS; i++)
   93                 lockinit(&disp_lock[i], "HAL preemption lock", 0,
   94                     LK_CANRECURSE);
   95 
   96         patch = hal_functbl;
   97         while (patch->ipt_func != NULL) {
   98                 windrv_wrap((funcptr)patch->ipt_func,
   99                     (funcptr *)&patch->ipt_wrap,
  100                     patch->ipt_argcnt, patch->ipt_ftype);
  101                 patch++;
  102         }
  103 
  104         return (0);
  105 }
  106 
  107 int
  108 hal_libfini(void)
  109 {
  110         image_patch_table       *patch;
  111         int                     i;
  112 
  113         for (i = 0; i < NDIS_MAXCPUS; i++)
  114                 lockuninit(&disp_lock[i]);
  115 
  116         patch = hal_functbl;
  117         while (patch->ipt_func != NULL) {
  118                 windrv_unwrap(patch->ipt_wrap);
  119                 patch++;
  120         }
  121 
  122         return (0);
  123 }
  124 
  125 static void
  126 KeStallExecutionProcessor(uint32_t usecs)
  127 {
  128         DELAY(usecs);
  129 }
  130 
  131 static void
  132 WRITE_PORT_ULONG(uint32_t *port, uint32_t val)
  133 {
  134         bus_space_write_4(NDIS_BUS_SPACE_IO, 0x0, (bus_size_t)port, val);
  135 }
  136 
  137 static void
  138 WRITE_PORT_USHORT(uint16_t *port, uint16_t val)
  139 {
  140         bus_space_write_2(NDIS_BUS_SPACE_IO, 0x0, (bus_size_t)port, val);
  141 }
  142 
  143 static void
  144 WRITE_PORT_UCHAR(uint8_t *port, uint8_t val)
  145 {
  146         bus_space_write_1(NDIS_BUS_SPACE_IO, 0x0, (bus_size_t)port, val);
  147 }
  148 
  149 static void
  150 WRITE_PORT_BUFFER_ULONG(uint32_t *port, uint32_t *val, uint32_t cnt)
  151 {
  152         bus_space_write_multi_4(NDIS_BUS_SPACE_IO, 0x0,
  153             (bus_size_t)port, val, cnt);
  154 }
  155 
  156 static void
  157 WRITE_PORT_BUFFER_USHORT(uint16_t *port, uint16_t *val, uint32_t cnt)
  158 {
  159         bus_space_write_multi_2(NDIS_BUS_SPACE_IO, 0x0,
  160             (bus_size_t)port, val, cnt);
  161 }
  162 
  163 static void
  164 WRITE_PORT_BUFFER_UCHAR(uint8_t *port, uint8_t *val, uint32_t cnt)
  165 {
  166         bus_space_write_multi_1(NDIS_BUS_SPACE_IO, 0x0,
  167             (bus_size_t)port, val, cnt);
  168 }
  169 
  170 static uint16_t
  171 READ_PORT_USHORT(uint16_t *port)
  172 {
  173         return (bus_space_read_2(NDIS_BUS_SPACE_IO, 0x0, (bus_size_t)port));
  174 }
  175 
  176 static uint32_t
  177 READ_PORT_ULONG(uint32_t *port)
  178 {
  179         return (bus_space_read_4(NDIS_BUS_SPACE_IO, 0x0, (bus_size_t)port));
  180 }
  181 
  182 static uint8_t
  183 READ_PORT_UCHAR(uint8_t *port)
  184 {
  185         return (bus_space_read_1(NDIS_BUS_SPACE_IO, 0x0, (bus_size_t)port));
  186 }
  187 
  188 static void
  189 READ_PORT_BUFFER_ULONG(uint32_t *port, uint32_t *val, uint32_t cnt)
  190 {
  191         bus_space_read_multi_4(NDIS_BUS_SPACE_IO, 0x0,
  192             (bus_size_t)port, val, cnt);
  193 }
  194 
  195 static void
  196 READ_PORT_BUFFER_USHORT(uint16_t *port, uint16_t *val, uint32_t cnt)
  197 {
  198         bus_space_read_multi_2(NDIS_BUS_SPACE_IO, 0x0,
  199             (bus_size_t)port, val, cnt);
  200 }
  201 
  202 static void
  203 READ_PORT_BUFFER_UCHAR(uint8_t *port, uint8_t *val, uint32_t cnt)
  204 {
  205         bus_space_read_multi_1(NDIS_BUS_SPACE_IO, 0x0,
  206             (bus_size_t)port, val, cnt);
  207 }
  208 
  209 /*
  210  * The spinlock implementation in Windows differs from that of FreeBSD.
  211  * The basic operation of spinlocks involves two steps: 1) spin in a
  212  * tight loop while trying to acquire a lock, 2) after obtaining the
  213  * lock, disable preemption. (Note that on uniprocessor systems, you're
  214  * allowed to skip the first step and just lock out pre-emption, since
  215  * it's not possible for you to be in contention with another running
  216  * thread.) Later, you release the lock then re-enable preemption.
  217  * The difference between Windows and FreeBSD lies in how preemption
  218  * is disabled. In FreeBSD, it's done using critical_enter(), which on
  219  * the x86 arch translates to a cli instruction. This masks off all
  220  * interrupts, and effectively stops the scheduler from ever running
  221  * so _nothing_ can execute except the current thread. In Windows,
  222  * preemption is disabled by raising the processor IRQL to DISPATCH_LEVEL.
  223  * This stops other threads from running, but does _not_ block device
  224  * interrupts. This means ISRs can still run, and they can make other
  225  * threads runable, but those other threads won't be able to execute
  226  * until the current thread lowers the IRQL to something less than
  227  * DISPATCH_LEVEL.
  228  *
  229  * There's another commonly used IRQL in Windows, which is APC_LEVEL.
  230  * An APC is an Asynchronous Procedure Call, which differs from a DPC
  231  * (Defered Procedure Call) in that a DPC is queued up to run in
  232  * another thread, while an APC runs in the thread that scheduled
  233  * it (similar to a signal handler in a UNIX process). We don't
  234  * actually support the notion of APCs in FreeBSD, so for now, the
  235  * only IRQLs we're interested in are DISPATCH_LEVEL and PASSIVE_LEVEL.
  236  *
  237  * To simulate DISPATCH_LEVEL, we raise the current thread's priority
  238  * to TDPRI_INT_HIGH, which is the highest we can give it. This should,
  239  * if I understand things correctly, prevent anything except for an
  240  * interrupt thread from preempting us. PASSIVE_LEVEL is basically
  241  * everything else.
  242  *
  243  * Be aware that, at least on the x86 arch, the Windows spinlock
  244  * functions are divided up in peculiar ways. The actual spinlock
  245  * functions are KfAcquireSpinLock() and KfReleaseSpinLock(), and
  246  * they live in HAL.dll. Meanwhile, KeInitializeSpinLock(),
  247  * KefAcquireSpinLockAtDpcLevel() and KefReleaseSpinLockFromDpcLevel()
  248  * live in ntoskrnl.exe. Most Windows source code will call
  249  * KeAcquireSpinLock() and KeReleaseSpinLock(), but these are just
  250  * macros that call KfAcquireSpinLock() and KfReleaseSpinLock().
  251  * KefAcquireSpinLockAtDpcLevel() and KefReleaseSpinLockFromDpcLevel()
  252  * perform the lock aquisition/release functions without doing the
  253  * IRQL manipulation, and are used when one is already running at
  254  * DISPATCH_LEVEL. Make sense? Good.
  255  *
  256  * According to the Microsoft documentation, any thread that calls
  257  * KeAcquireSpinLock() must be running at IRQL <= DISPATCH_LEVEL. If
  258  * we detect someone trying to acquire a spinlock from DEVICE_LEVEL
  259  * or HIGH_LEVEL, we panic.
  260  *
  261  * Alternate sleep-lock-based spinlock implementation
  262  * --------------------------------------------------
  263  *
  264  * The earlier spinlock implementation was arguably a bit of a hack
  265  * and presented several problems. It was basically designed to provide
  266  * the functionality of spinlocks without incurring the wrath of
  267  * WITNESS. We could get away with using both our spinlock implementation
  268  * and FreeBSD sleep locks at the same time, but if WITNESS knew what
  269  * we were really up to, it would have spanked us rather severely.
  270  *
  271  * There's another method we can use based entirely on sleep locks.
  272  * First, it's important to realize that everything we're locking
  273  * resides inside Project Evil itself: any critical data being locked
  274  * by drivers belongs to the drivers, and should not be referenced
  275  * by any other OS code outside of the NDISulator. The priority-based
  276  * locking scheme has system-wide effects, just like real spinlocks
  277  * (blocking preemption affects the whole CPU), but since we keep all
  278  * our critical data private, we can use a simpler mechanism that
  279  * affects only code/threads directly related to Project Evil.
  280  *
  281  * The idea is to create a sleep lock mutex for each CPU in the system.
  282  * When a CPU running in the NDISulator wants to acquire a spinlock, it
  283  * does the following:
  284  * - Pin ourselves to the current CPU
  285  * - Acquire the mutex for the current CPU
  286  * - Spin on the spinlock variable using atomic test and set, just like
  287  *   a real spinlock.
  288  * - Once we have the lock, we execute our critical code
  289  *
  290  * To give up the lock, we do:
  291  * - Clear the spinlock variable with an atomic op
  292  * - Release the per-CPU mutex
  293  * - Unpin ourselves from the current CPU.
  294  *
  295  * On a uniprocessor system, this means all threads that access protected
  296  * data are serialized through the per-CPU mutex. After one thread
  297  * acquires the 'spinlock,' any other thread that uses a spinlock on the
  298  * current CPU will block on the per-CPU mutex, which has the same general
  299  * effect of blocking pre-emption, but _only_ for those threads that are
  300  * running NDISulator code.
  301  *
  302  * On a multiprocessor system, threads on different CPUs all block on
  303  * their respective per-CPU mutex, and the atomic test/set operation
  304  * on the spinlock variable provides inter-CPU synchronization, though
  305  * only for threads running NDISulator code.
  306  *
  307  * This method solves an important problem. In Windows, you're allowed
  308  * to do an ExAllocatePoolWithTag() with a spinlock held, provided you
  309  * allocate from NonPagedPool. This implies an atomic heap allocation
  310  * that will not cause the current thread to sleep. (You can't sleep
  311  * while holding real spinlock: clowns will eat you.) But in FreeBSD,
  312  * malloc(9) _always_ triggers the acquisition of a sleep lock, even
  313  * when you use M_NOWAIT. This is not a problem for FreeBSD native
  314  * code: you're allowed to sleep in things like interrupt threads. But
  315  * it is a problem with the old priority-based spinlock implementation:
  316  * even though we get away with it most of the time, we really can't
  317  * do a malloc(9) after doing a KeAcquireSpinLock() or KeRaiseIrql().
  318  * With the new implementation, it's not a problem: you're allowed to
  319  * acquire more than one sleep lock (as long as you avoid lock order
  320  * reversals).
  321  *
  322  * The one drawback to this approach is that now we have a lot of
  323  * contention on one per-CPU mutex within the NDISulator code. Whether
  324  * or not this is preferable to the expected Windows spinlock behavior
  325  * of blocking pre-emption is debatable.
  326  */
  327 
  328 uint8_t
  329 KfAcquireSpinLock(kspin_lock *lock)
  330 {
  331         uint8_t                 oldirql;
  332 
  333         KeRaiseIrql(DISPATCH_LEVEL, &oldirql);
  334         KeAcquireSpinLockAtDpcLevel(lock);
  335 
  336         return (oldirql);
  337 }
  338 
  339 void
  340 KfReleaseSpinLock(kspin_lock *lock, uint8_t newirql)
  341 {
  342         KeReleaseSpinLockFromDpcLevel(lock);
  343         KeLowerIrql(newirql);
  344 }
  345 
  346 uint8_t
  347 KeGetCurrentIrql(void)
  348 {
  349         if (lockstatus(&disp_lock[curthread->td_gd->gd_cpuid], curthread))
  350                 return (DISPATCH_LEVEL);
  351         return (PASSIVE_LEVEL);
  352 }
  353 
  354 static uint64_t
  355 KeQueryPerformanceCounter(uint64_t *freq)
  356 {
  357         if (freq != NULL)
  358                 *freq = hz;
  359 
  360         return ((uint64_t)ticks);
  361 }
  362 
  363 uint8_t
  364 KfRaiseIrql(uint8_t irql)
  365 {
  366         uint8_t                 oldirql;
  367 
  368 #if 0 /* XXX swildner */
  369                 sched_pin();
  370 #endif
  371         oldirql = KeGetCurrentIrql();
  372 
  373         /* I am so going to hell for this. */
  374         if (oldirql > irql)
  375                 panic("IRQL_NOT_LESS_THAN_OR_EQUAL");
  376 
  377         if (oldirql != DISPATCH_LEVEL)
  378                 lockmgr(&disp_lock[curthread->td_gd->gd_cpuid], LK_EXCLUSIVE);
  379 #if 0 /* XXX swildner */
  380         else
  381                 sched_unpin();
  382 #endif
  383 
  384 /*kprintf("RAISE IRQL: %d %d\n", irql, oldirql);*/
  385 
  386         return (oldirql);
  387 }
  388 
  389 void
  390 KfLowerIrql(uint8_t oldirql)
  391 {
  392         if (oldirql == DISPATCH_LEVEL)
  393                 return;
  394 
  395         if (KeGetCurrentIrql() != DISPATCH_LEVEL)
  396                 panic("IRQL_NOT_GREATER_THAN");
  397 
  398         lockmgr(&disp_lock[curthread->td_gd->gd_cpuid], LK_RELEASE);
  399 #if 0 /* XXX swildner */
  400         sched_unpin();
  401 #endif
  402 }
  403 
  404 static uint8_t
  405 KeRaiseIrqlToDpcLevel(void)
  406 {
  407         uint8_t                 irql;
  408 
  409         KeRaiseIrql(DISPATCH_LEVEL, &irql);
  410         return (irql);
  411 }
  412 
  413 static void
  414 _KeLowerIrql(uint8_t oldirql)
  415 {
  416         KeLowerIrql(oldirql);
  417 }
  418 
  419 static void dummy(void)
  420 {
  421         kprintf("hal dummy called...\n");
  422 }
  423 
  424 image_patch_table hal_functbl[] = {
  425         IMPORT_SFUNC(KeStallExecutionProcessor, 1),
  426         IMPORT_SFUNC(WRITE_PORT_ULONG, 2),
  427         IMPORT_SFUNC(WRITE_PORT_USHORT, 2),
  428         IMPORT_SFUNC(WRITE_PORT_UCHAR, 2),
  429         IMPORT_SFUNC(WRITE_PORT_BUFFER_ULONG, 3),
  430         IMPORT_SFUNC(WRITE_PORT_BUFFER_USHORT, 3),
  431         IMPORT_SFUNC(WRITE_PORT_BUFFER_UCHAR, 3),
  432         IMPORT_SFUNC(READ_PORT_ULONG, 1),
  433         IMPORT_SFUNC(READ_PORT_USHORT, 1),
  434         IMPORT_SFUNC(READ_PORT_UCHAR, 1),
  435         IMPORT_SFUNC(READ_PORT_BUFFER_ULONG, 3),
  436         IMPORT_SFUNC(READ_PORT_BUFFER_USHORT, 3),
  437         IMPORT_SFUNC(READ_PORT_BUFFER_UCHAR, 3),
  438         IMPORT_FFUNC(KfAcquireSpinLock, 1),
  439         IMPORT_FFUNC(KfReleaseSpinLock, 1),
  440         IMPORT_SFUNC(KeGetCurrentIrql, 0),
  441         IMPORT_SFUNC(KeQueryPerformanceCounter, 1),
  442         IMPORT_FFUNC(KfLowerIrql, 1),
  443         IMPORT_FFUNC(KfRaiseIrql, 1),
  444         IMPORT_SFUNC(KeRaiseIrqlToDpcLevel, 0),
  445 #undef KeLowerIrql
  446         IMPORT_SFUNC_MAP(KeLowerIrql, _KeLowerIrql, 1),
  447 
  448         /*
  449          * This last entry is a catch-all for any function we haven't
  450          * implemented yet. The PE import list patching routine will
  451          * use it for any function that doesn't have an explicit match
  452          * in this table.
  453          */
  454 
  455         { NULL, (FUNC)dummy, NULL, 0, WINDRV_WRAP_STDCALL },
  456 
  457         /* End of list. */
  458 
  459         { NULL, NULL, NULL }
  460 };

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