The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System, Second Edition
Now available: The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System (Second Edition)


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FreeBSD/Linux Kernel Cross Reference
sys/i386/i386/trap.c

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    1 /*-
    2  * Copyright (C) 1994, David Greenman
    3  * Copyright (c) 1990, 1993
    4  *      The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
    5  *
    6  * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
    7  * the University of Utah, and William Jolitz.
    8  *
    9  * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
   10  * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
   11  * are met:
   12  * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
   13  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
   14  * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
   15  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
   16  *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
   17  * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
   18  *    must display the following acknowledgement:
   19  *      This product includes software developed by the University of
   20  *      California, Berkeley and its contributors.
   21  * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
   22  *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
   23  *    without specific prior written permission.
   24  *
   25  * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
   26  * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
   27  * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
   28  * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
   29  * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
   30  * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
   31  * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
   32  * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
   33  * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
   34  * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
   35  * SUCH DAMAGE.
   36  *
   37  *      from: @(#)trap.c        7.4 (Berkeley) 5/13/91
   38  */
   39 
   40 #include <sys/cdefs.h>
   41 __FBSDID("$FreeBSD: stable/9/sys/i386/i386/trap.c 284642 2015-06-20 13:25:28Z dim $");
   42 
   43 /*
   44  * 386 Trap and System call handling
   45  */
   46 
   47 #include "opt_clock.h"
   48 #include "opt_cpu.h"
   49 #include "opt_hwpmc_hooks.h"
   50 #include "opt_isa.h"
   51 #include "opt_kdb.h"
   52 #include "opt_kdtrace.h"
   53 #include "opt_npx.h"
   54 #include "opt_trap.h"
   55 
   56 #include <sys/param.h>
   57 #include <sys/bus.h>
   58 #include <sys/systm.h>
   59 #include <sys/proc.h>
   60 #include <sys/pioctl.h>
   61 #include <sys/ptrace.h>
   62 #include <sys/kdb.h>
   63 #include <sys/kernel.h>
   64 #include <sys/ktr.h>
   65 #include <sys/lock.h>
   66 #include <sys/mutex.h>
   67 #include <sys/resourcevar.h>
   68 #include <sys/signalvar.h>
   69 #include <sys/syscall.h>
   70 #include <sys/sysctl.h>
   71 #include <sys/sysent.h>
   72 #include <sys/uio.h>
   73 #include <sys/vmmeter.h>
   74 #ifdef HWPMC_HOOKS
   75 #include <sys/pmckern.h>
   76 PMC_SOFT_DEFINE( , , page_fault, all);
   77 PMC_SOFT_DEFINE( , , page_fault, read);
   78 PMC_SOFT_DEFINE( , , page_fault, write);
   79 #endif
   80 #include <security/audit/audit.h>
   81 
   82 #include <vm/vm.h>
   83 #include <vm/vm_param.h>
   84 #include <vm/pmap.h>
   85 #include <vm/vm_kern.h>
   86 #include <vm/vm_map.h>
   87 #include <vm/vm_page.h>
   88 #include <vm/vm_extern.h>
   89 
   90 #include <machine/cpu.h>
   91 #include <machine/intr_machdep.h>
   92 #include <x86/mca.h>
   93 #include <machine/md_var.h>
   94 #include <machine/pcb.h>
   95 #ifdef SMP
   96 #include <machine/smp.h>
   97 #endif
   98 #include <machine/tss.h>
   99 #include <machine/vm86.h>
  100 
  101 #ifdef POWERFAIL_NMI
  102 #include <sys/syslog.h>
  103 #include <machine/clock.h>
  104 #endif
  105 
  106 #ifdef KDTRACE_HOOKS
  107 #include <sys/dtrace_bsd.h>
  108 
  109 /*
  110  * This is a hook which is initialised by the dtrace module
  111  * to handle traps which might occur during DTrace probe
  112  * execution.
  113  */
  114 dtrace_trap_func_t      dtrace_trap_func;
  115 
  116 dtrace_doubletrap_func_t        dtrace_doubletrap_func;
  117 
  118 /*
  119  * This is a hook which is initialised by the systrace module
  120  * when it is loaded. This keeps the DTrace syscall provider
  121  * implementation opaque. 
  122  */
  123 systrace_probe_func_t   systrace_probe_func;
  124 
  125 /*
  126  * These hooks are necessary for the pid and usdt providers.
  127  */
  128 dtrace_pid_probe_ptr_t          dtrace_pid_probe_ptr;
  129 dtrace_return_probe_ptr_t       dtrace_return_probe_ptr;
  130 #endif
  131 
  132 extern void trap(struct trapframe *frame);
  133 extern void syscall(struct trapframe *frame);
  134 
  135 static int trap_pfault(struct trapframe *, int, vm_offset_t);
  136 static void trap_fatal(struct trapframe *, vm_offset_t);
  137 void dblfault_handler(void);
  138 
  139 extern inthand_t IDTVEC(lcall_syscall);
  140 
  141 #define MAX_TRAP_MSG            32
  142 static char *trap_msg[] = {
  143         "",                                     /*  0 unused */
  144         "privileged instruction fault",         /*  1 T_PRIVINFLT */
  145         "",                                     /*  2 unused */
  146         "breakpoint instruction fault",         /*  3 T_BPTFLT */
  147         "",                                     /*  4 unused */
  148         "",                                     /*  5 unused */
  149         "arithmetic trap",                      /*  6 T_ARITHTRAP */
  150         "",                                     /*  7 unused */
  151         "",                                     /*  8 unused */
  152         "general protection fault",             /*  9 T_PROTFLT */
  153         "trace trap",                           /* 10 T_TRCTRAP */
  154         "",                                     /* 11 unused */
  155         "page fault",                           /* 12 T_PAGEFLT */
  156         "",                                     /* 13 unused */
  157         "alignment fault",                      /* 14 T_ALIGNFLT */
  158         "",                                     /* 15 unused */
  159         "",                                     /* 16 unused */
  160         "",                                     /* 17 unused */
  161         "integer divide fault",                 /* 18 T_DIVIDE */
  162         "non-maskable interrupt trap",          /* 19 T_NMI */
  163         "overflow trap",                        /* 20 T_OFLOW */
  164         "FPU bounds check fault",               /* 21 T_BOUND */
  165         "FPU device not available",             /* 22 T_DNA */
  166         "double fault",                         /* 23 T_DOUBLEFLT */
  167         "FPU operand fetch fault",              /* 24 T_FPOPFLT */
  168         "invalid TSS fault",                    /* 25 T_TSSFLT */
  169         "segment not present fault",            /* 26 T_SEGNPFLT */
  170         "stack fault",                          /* 27 T_STKFLT */
  171         "machine check trap",                   /* 28 T_MCHK */
  172         "SIMD floating-point exception",        /* 29 T_XMMFLT */
  173         "reserved (unknown) fault",             /* 30 T_RESERVED */
  174         "",                                     /* 31 unused (reserved) */
  175         "DTrace pid return trap",               /* 32 T_DTRACE_RET */
  176 };
  177 
  178 #if defined(I586_CPU) && !defined(NO_F00F_HACK)
  179 extern int has_f00f_bug;
  180 #endif
  181 
  182 #ifdef KDB
  183 static int kdb_on_nmi = 1;
  184 SYSCTL_INT(_machdep, OID_AUTO, kdb_on_nmi, CTLFLAG_RW,
  185         &kdb_on_nmi, 0, "Go to KDB on NMI");
  186 TUNABLE_INT("machdep.kdb_on_nmi", &kdb_on_nmi);
  187 #endif
  188 static int panic_on_nmi = 1;
  189 SYSCTL_INT(_machdep, OID_AUTO, panic_on_nmi, CTLFLAG_RW,
  190         &panic_on_nmi, 0, "Panic on NMI");
  191 TUNABLE_INT("machdep.panic_on_nmi", &panic_on_nmi);
  192 static int prot_fault_translation = 0;
  193 SYSCTL_INT(_machdep, OID_AUTO, prot_fault_translation, CTLFLAG_RW,
  194         &prot_fault_translation, 0, "Select signal to deliver on protection fault");
  195 static int uprintf_signal;
  196 SYSCTL_INT(_machdep, OID_AUTO, uprintf_signal, CTLFLAG_RW,
  197     &uprintf_signal, 0,
  198     "Print debugging information on trap signal to ctty");
  199 
  200 /*
  201  * Exception, fault, and trap interface to the FreeBSD kernel.
  202  * This common code is called from assembly language IDT gate entry
  203  * routines that prepare a suitable stack frame, and restore this
  204  * frame after the exception has been processed.
  205  */
  206 
  207 void
  208 trap(struct trapframe *frame)
  209 {
  210 #ifdef KDTRACE_HOOKS
  211         struct reg regs;
  212 #endif
  213         struct thread *td = curthread;
  214         struct proc *p = td->td_proc;
  215         int i = 0, ucode = 0, code;
  216         u_int type;
  217         register_t addr = 0;
  218         vm_offset_t eva;
  219         ksiginfo_t ksi;
  220 #ifdef POWERFAIL_NMI
  221         static int lastalert = 0;
  222 #endif
  223 
  224         PCPU_INC(cnt.v_trap);
  225         type = frame->tf_trapno;
  226 
  227 #ifdef SMP
  228         /* Handler for NMI IPIs used for stopping CPUs. */
  229         if (type == T_NMI) {
  230                  if (ipi_nmi_handler() == 0)
  231                            goto out;
  232         }
  233 #endif /* SMP */
  234 
  235 #ifdef KDB
  236         if (kdb_active) {
  237                 kdb_reenter();
  238                 goto out;
  239         }
  240 #endif
  241 
  242         if (type == T_RESERVED) {
  243                 trap_fatal(frame, 0);
  244                 goto out;
  245         }
  246 
  247 #ifdef  HWPMC_HOOKS
  248         /*
  249          * CPU PMCs interrupt using an NMI so we check for that first.
  250          * If the HWPMC module is active, 'pmc_hook' will point to
  251          * the function to be called.  A return value of '1' from the
  252          * hook means that the NMI was handled by it and that we can
  253          * return immediately.
  254          */
  255         if (type == T_NMI && pmc_intr &&
  256             (*pmc_intr)(PCPU_GET(cpuid), frame))
  257             goto out;
  258 #endif
  259 
  260         if (type == T_MCHK) {
  261                 mca_intr();
  262                 goto out;
  263         }
  264 
  265 #ifdef KDTRACE_HOOKS
  266         /*
  267          * A trap can occur while DTrace executes a probe. Before
  268          * executing the probe, DTrace blocks re-scheduling and sets
  269          * a flag in its per-cpu flags to indicate that it doesn't
  270          * want to fault. On returning from the probe, the no-fault
  271          * flag is cleared and finally re-scheduling is enabled.
  272          */
  273         if ((type == T_PROTFLT || type == T_PAGEFLT) &&
  274             dtrace_trap_func != NULL && (*dtrace_trap_func)(frame, type))
  275                 goto out;
  276 #endif
  277 
  278         if ((frame->tf_eflags & PSL_I) == 0) {
  279                 /*
  280                  * Buggy application or kernel code has disabled
  281                  * interrupts and then trapped.  Enabling interrupts
  282                  * now is wrong, but it is better than running with
  283                  * interrupts disabled until they are accidentally
  284                  * enabled later.
  285                  */
  286                 if (ISPL(frame->tf_cs) == SEL_UPL || (frame->tf_eflags & PSL_VM))
  287                         uprintf(
  288                             "pid %ld (%s): trap %d with interrupts disabled\n",
  289                             (long)curproc->p_pid, curthread->td_name, type);
  290                 else if (type != T_BPTFLT && type != T_TRCTRAP &&
  291                          frame->tf_eip != (int)cpu_switch_load_gs) {
  292                         /*
  293                          * XXX not quite right, since this may be for a
  294                          * multiple fault in user mode.
  295                          */
  296                         printf("kernel trap %d with interrupts disabled\n",
  297                             type);
  298                         /*
  299                          * Page faults need interrupts disabled until later,
  300                          * and we shouldn't enable interrupts while holding
  301                          * a spin lock or if servicing an NMI.
  302                          */
  303                         if (type != T_NMI && type != T_PAGEFLT &&
  304                             td->td_md.md_spinlock_count == 0)
  305                                 enable_intr();
  306                 }
  307         }
  308         eva = 0;
  309         code = frame->tf_err;
  310         if (type == T_PAGEFLT) {
  311                 /*
  312                  * For some Cyrix CPUs, %cr2 is clobbered by
  313                  * interrupts.  This problem is worked around by using
  314                  * an interrupt gate for the pagefault handler.  We
  315                  * are finally ready to read %cr2 and conditionally
  316                  * reenable interrupts.  If we hold a spin lock, then
  317                  * we must not reenable interrupts.  This might be a
  318                  * spurious page fault.
  319                  */
  320                 eva = rcr2();
  321                 if (td->td_md.md_spinlock_count == 0)
  322                         enable_intr();
  323         }
  324 
  325         if ((ISPL(frame->tf_cs) == SEL_UPL) ||
  326             ((frame->tf_eflags & PSL_VM) && 
  327                 !(curpcb->pcb_flags & PCB_VM86CALL))) {
  328                 /* user trap */
  329 
  330                 td->td_pticks = 0;
  331                 td->td_frame = frame;
  332                 addr = frame->tf_eip;
  333                 if (td->td_ucred != p->p_ucred) 
  334                         cred_update_thread(td);
  335 
  336                 switch (type) {
  337                 case T_PRIVINFLT:       /* privileged instruction fault */
  338                         i = SIGILL;
  339                         ucode = ILL_PRVOPC;
  340                         break;
  341 
  342                 case T_BPTFLT:          /* bpt instruction fault */
  343                 case T_TRCTRAP:         /* trace trap */
  344                         enable_intr();
  345 #ifdef KDTRACE_HOOKS
  346                         if (type == T_BPTFLT) {
  347                                 fill_frame_regs(frame, &regs);
  348                                 if (dtrace_pid_probe_ptr != NULL &&
  349                                     dtrace_pid_probe_ptr(&regs) == 0)
  350                                         goto out;
  351                         }
  352 #endif
  353                         frame->tf_eflags &= ~PSL_T;
  354                         i = SIGTRAP;
  355                         ucode = (type == T_TRCTRAP ? TRAP_TRACE : TRAP_BRKPT);
  356                         break;
  357 
  358                 case T_ARITHTRAP:       /* arithmetic trap */
  359 #ifdef DEV_NPX
  360                         ucode = npxtrap_x87();
  361                         if (ucode == -1)
  362                                 goto userout;
  363 #else
  364                         ucode = 0;
  365 #endif
  366                         i = SIGFPE;
  367                         break;
  368 
  369                         /*
  370                          * The following two traps can happen in
  371                          * vm86 mode, and, if so, we want to handle
  372                          * them specially.
  373                          */
  374                 case T_PROTFLT:         /* general protection fault */
  375                 case T_STKFLT:          /* stack fault */
  376                         if (frame->tf_eflags & PSL_VM) {
  377                                 i = vm86_emulate((struct vm86frame *)frame);
  378                                 if (i == 0)
  379                                         goto user;
  380                                 break;
  381                         }
  382                         i = SIGBUS;
  383                         ucode = (type == T_PROTFLT) ? BUS_OBJERR : BUS_ADRERR;
  384                         break;
  385                 case T_SEGNPFLT:        /* segment not present fault */
  386                         i = SIGBUS;
  387                         ucode = BUS_ADRERR;
  388                         break;
  389                 case T_TSSFLT:          /* invalid TSS fault */
  390                         i = SIGBUS;
  391                         ucode = BUS_OBJERR;
  392                         break;
  393                 case T_ALIGNFLT:
  394                         i = SIGBUS;
  395                         ucode = BUS_ADRALN;
  396                         break;
  397                 case T_DOUBLEFLT:       /* double fault */
  398                 default:
  399                         i = SIGBUS;
  400                         ucode = BUS_OBJERR;
  401                         break;
  402 
  403                 case T_PAGEFLT:         /* page fault */
  404 
  405                         i = trap_pfault(frame, TRUE, eva);
  406 #if defined(I586_CPU) && !defined(NO_F00F_HACK)
  407                         if (i == -2) {
  408                                 /*
  409                                  * The f00f hack workaround has triggered, so
  410                                  * treat the fault as an illegal instruction 
  411                                  * (T_PRIVINFLT) instead of a page fault.
  412                                  */
  413                                 type = frame->tf_trapno = T_PRIVINFLT;
  414 
  415                                 /* Proceed as in that case. */
  416                                 ucode = ILL_PRVOPC;
  417                                 i = SIGILL;
  418                                 break;
  419                         }
  420 #endif
  421                         if (i == -1)
  422                                 goto userout;
  423                         if (i == 0)
  424                                 goto user;
  425 
  426                         if (i == SIGSEGV)
  427                                 ucode = SEGV_MAPERR;
  428                         else {
  429                                 if (prot_fault_translation == 0) {
  430                                         /*
  431                                          * Autodetect.
  432                                          * This check also covers the images
  433                                          * without the ABI-tag ELF note.
  434                                          */
  435                                         if (SV_CURPROC_ABI() == SV_ABI_FREEBSD
  436                                             && p->p_osrel >= P_OSREL_SIGSEGV) {
  437                                                 i = SIGSEGV;
  438                                                 ucode = SEGV_ACCERR;
  439                                         } else {
  440                                                 i = SIGBUS;
  441                                                 ucode = BUS_PAGE_FAULT;
  442                                         }
  443                                 } else if (prot_fault_translation == 1) {
  444                                         /*
  445                                          * Always compat mode.
  446                                          */
  447                                         i = SIGBUS;
  448                                         ucode = BUS_PAGE_FAULT;
  449                                 } else {
  450                                         /*
  451                                          * Always SIGSEGV mode.
  452                                          */
  453                                         i = SIGSEGV;
  454                                         ucode = SEGV_ACCERR;
  455                                 }
  456                         }
  457                         addr = eva;
  458                         break;
  459 
  460                 case T_DIVIDE:          /* integer divide fault */
  461                         ucode = FPE_INTDIV;
  462                         i = SIGFPE;
  463                         break;
  464 
  465 #ifdef DEV_ISA
  466                 case T_NMI:
  467 #ifdef POWERFAIL_NMI
  468 #ifndef TIMER_FREQ
  469 #  define TIMER_FREQ 1193182
  470 #endif
  471                         if (time_second - lastalert > 10) {
  472                                 log(LOG_WARNING, "NMI: power fail\n");
  473                                 sysbeep(880, hz);
  474                                 lastalert = time_second;
  475                         }
  476                         goto userout;
  477 #else /* !POWERFAIL_NMI */
  478                         /* machine/parity/power fail/"kitchen sink" faults */
  479                         if (isa_nmi(code) == 0) {
  480 #ifdef KDB
  481                                 /*
  482                                  * NMI can be hooked up to a pushbutton
  483                                  * for debugging.
  484                                  */
  485                                 if (kdb_on_nmi) {
  486                                         printf ("NMI ... going to debugger\n");
  487                                         kdb_trap(type, 0, frame);
  488                                 }
  489 #endif /* KDB */
  490                                 goto userout;
  491                         } else if (panic_on_nmi)
  492                                 panic("NMI indicates hardware failure");
  493                         break;
  494 #endif /* POWERFAIL_NMI */
  495 #endif /* DEV_ISA */
  496 
  497                 case T_OFLOW:           /* integer overflow fault */
  498                         ucode = FPE_INTOVF;
  499                         i = SIGFPE;
  500                         break;
  501 
  502                 case T_BOUND:           /* bounds check fault */
  503                         ucode = FPE_FLTSUB;
  504                         i = SIGFPE;
  505                         break;
  506 
  507                 case T_DNA:
  508 #ifdef DEV_NPX
  509                         KASSERT(PCB_USER_FPU(td->td_pcb),
  510                             ("kernel FPU ctx has leaked"));
  511                         /* transparent fault (due to context switch "late") */
  512                         if (npxdna())
  513                                 goto userout;
  514 #endif
  515                         uprintf("pid %d killed due to lack of floating point\n",
  516                                 p->p_pid);
  517                         i = SIGKILL;
  518                         ucode = 0;
  519                         break;
  520 
  521                 case T_FPOPFLT:         /* FPU operand fetch fault */
  522                         ucode = ILL_COPROC;
  523                         i = SIGILL;
  524                         break;
  525 
  526                 case T_XMMFLT:          /* SIMD floating-point exception */
  527 #if defined(DEV_NPX) && !defined(CPU_DISABLE_SSE) && defined(I686_CPU)
  528                         ucode = npxtrap_sse();
  529                         if (ucode == -1)
  530                                 goto userout;
  531 #else
  532                         ucode = 0;
  533 #endif
  534                         i = SIGFPE;
  535                         break;
  536 #ifdef KDTRACE_HOOKS
  537                 case T_DTRACE_RET:
  538                         enable_intr();
  539                         fill_frame_regs(frame, &regs);
  540                         if (dtrace_return_probe_ptr != NULL &&
  541                             dtrace_return_probe_ptr(&regs) == 0)
  542                                 goto out;
  543                         break;
  544 #endif
  545                 }
  546         } else {
  547                 /* kernel trap */
  548 
  549                 KASSERT(cold || td->td_ucred != NULL,
  550                     ("kernel trap doesn't have ucred"));
  551                 switch (type) {
  552                 case T_PAGEFLT:                 /* page fault */
  553                         (void) trap_pfault(frame, FALSE, eva);
  554                         goto out;
  555 
  556                 case T_DNA:
  557 #ifdef DEV_NPX
  558                         KASSERT(!PCB_USER_FPU(td->td_pcb),
  559                             ("Unregistered use of FPU in kernel"));
  560                         if (npxdna())
  561                                 goto out;
  562 #endif
  563                         break;
  564 
  565                 case T_ARITHTRAP:       /* arithmetic trap */
  566                 case T_XMMFLT:          /* SIMD floating-point exception */
  567                 case T_FPOPFLT:         /* FPU operand fetch fault */
  568                         /*
  569                          * XXXKIB for now disable any FPU traps in kernel
  570                          * handler registration seems to be overkill
  571                          */
  572                         trap_fatal(frame, 0);
  573                         goto out;
  574 
  575                         /*
  576                          * The following two traps can happen in
  577                          * vm86 mode, and, if so, we want to handle
  578                          * them specially.
  579                          */
  580                 case T_PROTFLT:         /* general protection fault */
  581                 case T_STKFLT:          /* stack fault */
  582                         if (frame->tf_eflags & PSL_VM) {
  583                                 i = vm86_emulate((struct vm86frame *)frame);
  584                                 if (i != 0)
  585                                         /*
  586                                          * returns to original process
  587                                          */
  588                                         vm86_trap((struct vm86frame *)frame);
  589                                 goto out;
  590                         }
  591                         if (type == T_STKFLT)
  592                                 break;
  593 
  594                         /* FALL THROUGH */
  595 
  596                 case T_SEGNPFLT:        /* segment not present fault */
  597                         if (curpcb->pcb_flags & PCB_VM86CALL)
  598                                 break;
  599 
  600                         /*
  601                          * Invalid %fs's and %gs's can be created using
  602                          * procfs or PT_SETREGS or by invalidating the
  603                          * underlying LDT entry.  This causes a fault
  604                          * in kernel mode when the kernel attempts to
  605                          * switch contexts.  Lose the bad context
  606                          * (XXX) so that we can continue, and generate
  607                          * a signal.
  608                          */
  609                         if (frame->tf_eip == (int)cpu_switch_load_gs) {
  610                                 curpcb->pcb_gs = 0;
  611 #if 0                           
  612                                 PROC_LOCK(p);
  613                                 kern_psignal(p, SIGBUS);
  614                                 PROC_UNLOCK(p);
  615 #endif                          
  616                                 goto out;
  617                         }
  618 
  619                         if (td->td_intr_nesting_level != 0)
  620                                 break;
  621 
  622                         /*
  623                          * Invalid segment selectors and out of bounds
  624                          * %eip's and %esp's can be set up in user mode.
  625                          * This causes a fault in kernel mode when the
  626                          * kernel tries to return to user mode.  We want
  627                          * to get this fault so that we can fix the
  628                          * problem here and not have to check all the
  629                          * selectors and pointers when the user changes
  630                          * them.
  631                          */
  632                         if (frame->tf_eip == (int)doreti_iret) {
  633                                 frame->tf_eip = (int)doreti_iret_fault;
  634                                 goto out;
  635                         }
  636                         if (frame->tf_eip == (int)doreti_popl_ds) {
  637                                 frame->tf_eip = (int)doreti_popl_ds_fault;
  638                                 goto out;
  639                         }
  640                         if (frame->tf_eip == (int)doreti_popl_es) {
  641                                 frame->tf_eip = (int)doreti_popl_es_fault;
  642                                 goto out;
  643                         }
  644                         if (frame->tf_eip == (int)doreti_popl_fs) {
  645                                 frame->tf_eip = (int)doreti_popl_fs_fault;
  646                                 goto out;
  647                         }
  648                         if (curpcb->pcb_onfault != NULL) {
  649                                 frame->tf_eip =
  650                                     (int)curpcb->pcb_onfault;
  651                                 goto out;
  652                         }
  653                         break;
  654 
  655                 case T_TSSFLT:
  656                         /*
  657                          * PSL_NT can be set in user mode and isn't cleared
  658                          * automatically when the kernel is entered.  This
  659                          * causes a TSS fault when the kernel attempts to
  660                          * `iret' because the TSS link is uninitialized.  We
  661                          * want to get this fault so that we can fix the
  662                          * problem here and not every time the kernel is
  663                          * entered.
  664                          */
  665                         if (frame->tf_eflags & PSL_NT) {
  666                                 frame->tf_eflags &= ~PSL_NT;
  667                                 goto out;
  668                         }
  669                         break;
  670 
  671                 case T_TRCTRAP:  /* trace trap */
  672                         if (frame->tf_eip == (int)IDTVEC(lcall_syscall)) {
  673                                 /*
  674                                  * We've just entered system mode via the
  675                                  * syscall lcall.  Continue single stepping
  676                                  * silently until the syscall handler has
  677                                  * saved the flags.
  678                                  */
  679                                 goto out;
  680                         }
  681                         if (frame->tf_eip == (int)IDTVEC(lcall_syscall) + 1) {
  682                                 /*
  683                                  * The syscall handler has now saved the
  684                                  * flags.  Stop single stepping it.
  685                                  */
  686                                 frame->tf_eflags &= ~PSL_T;
  687                                 goto out;
  688                         }
  689                         /*
  690                          * Ignore debug register trace traps due to
  691                          * accesses in the user's address space, which
  692                          * can happen under several conditions such as
  693                          * if a user sets a watchpoint on a buffer and
  694                          * then passes that buffer to a system call.
  695                          * We still want to get TRCTRAPS for addresses
  696                          * in kernel space because that is useful when
  697                          * debugging the kernel.
  698                          */
  699                         if (user_dbreg_trap() && 
  700                            !(curpcb->pcb_flags & PCB_VM86CALL)) {
  701                                 /*
  702                                  * Reset breakpoint bits because the
  703                                  * processor doesn't
  704                                  */
  705                                 load_dr6(rdr6() & 0xfffffff0);
  706                                 goto out;
  707                         }
  708                         /*
  709                          * FALLTHROUGH (TRCTRAP kernel mode, kernel address)
  710                          */
  711                 case T_BPTFLT:
  712                         /*
  713                          * If KDB is enabled, let it handle the debugger trap.
  714                          * Otherwise, debugger traps "can't happen".
  715                          */
  716 #ifdef KDB
  717                         if (kdb_trap(type, 0, frame))
  718                                 goto out;
  719 #endif
  720                         break;
  721 
  722 #ifdef DEV_ISA
  723                 case T_NMI:
  724 #ifdef POWERFAIL_NMI
  725                         if (time_second - lastalert > 10) {
  726                                 log(LOG_WARNING, "NMI: power fail\n");
  727                                 sysbeep(880, hz);
  728                                 lastalert = time_second;
  729                         }
  730                         goto out;
  731 #else /* !POWERFAIL_NMI */
  732                         /* machine/parity/power fail/"kitchen sink" faults */
  733                         if (isa_nmi(code) == 0) {
  734 #ifdef KDB
  735                                 /*
  736                                  * NMI can be hooked up to a pushbutton
  737                                  * for debugging.
  738                                  */
  739                                 if (kdb_on_nmi) {
  740                                         printf ("NMI ... going to debugger\n");
  741                                         kdb_trap(type, 0, frame);
  742                                 }
  743 #endif /* KDB */
  744                                 goto out;
  745                         } else if (panic_on_nmi == 0)
  746                                 goto out;
  747                         /* FALLTHROUGH */
  748 #endif /* POWERFAIL_NMI */
  749 #endif /* DEV_ISA */
  750                 }
  751 
  752                 trap_fatal(frame, eva);
  753                 goto out;
  754         }
  755 
  756         /* Translate fault for emulators (e.g. Linux) */
  757         if (*p->p_sysent->sv_transtrap)
  758                 i = (*p->p_sysent->sv_transtrap)(i, type);
  759 
  760         ksiginfo_init_trap(&ksi);
  761         ksi.ksi_signo = i;
  762         ksi.ksi_code = ucode;
  763         ksi.ksi_addr = (void *)addr;
  764         ksi.ksi_trapno = type;
  765         if (uprintf_signal) {
  766                 uprintf("pid %d comm %s: signal %d err %x code %d type %d "
  767                     "addr 0x%x esp 0x%08x eip 0x%08x "
  768                     "<%02x %02x %02x %02x %02x %02x %02x %02x>\n",
  769                     p->p_pid, p->p_comm, i, frame->tf_err, ucode, type, addr,
  770                     frame->tf_esp, frame->tf_eip,
  771                     fubyte((void *)(frame->tf_eip + 0)),
  772                     fubyte((void *)(frame->tf_eip + 1)),
  773                     fubyte((void *)(frame->tf_eip + 2)),
  774                     fubyte((void *)(frame->tf_eip + 3)),
  775                     fubyte((void *)(frame->tf_eip + 4)),
  776                     fubyte((void *)(frame->tf_eip + 5)),
  777                     fubyte((void *)(frame->tf_eip + 6)),
  778                     fubyte((void *)(frame->tf_eip + 7)));
  779         }
  780         KASSERT((read_eflags() & PSL_I) != 0, ("interrupts disabled"));
  781         trapsignal(td, &ksi);
  782 
  783 #ifdef DEBUG
  784         if (type <= MAX_TRAP_MSG) {
  785                 uprintf("fatal process exception: %s",
  786                         trap_msg[type]);
  787                 if ((type == T_PAGEFLT) || (type == T_PROTFLT))
  788                         uprintf(", fault VA = 0x%lx", (u_long)eva);
  789                 uprintf("\n");
  790         }
  791 #endif
  792 
  793 user:
  794         userret(td, frame);
  795         mtx_assert(&Giant, MA_NOTOWNED);
  796         KASSERT(PCB_USER_FPU(td->td_pcb),
  797             ("Return from trap with kernel FPU ctx leaked"));
  798 userout:
  799 out:
  800         return;
  801 }
  802 
  803 static int
  804 trap_pfault(frame, usermode, eva)
  805         struct trapframe *frame;
  806         int usermode;
  807         vm_offset_t eva;
  808 {
  809         vm_offset_t va;
  810         struct vmspace *vm = NULL;
  811         vm_map_t map;
  812         int rv = 0;
  813         vm_prot_t ftype;
  814         struct thread *td = curthread;
  815         struct proc *p = td->td_proc;
  816 
  817         if (__predict_false((td->td_pflags & TDP_NOFAULTING) != 0)) {
  818                 /*
  819                  * Due to both processor errata and lazy TLB invalidation when
  820                  * access restrictions are removed from virtual pages, memory
  821                  * accesses that are allowed by the physical mapping layer may
  822                  * nonetheless cause one spurious page fault per virtual page. 
  823                  * When the thread is executing a "no faulting" section that
  824                  * is bracketed by vm_fault_{disable,enable}_pagefaults(),
  825                  * every page fault is treated as a spurious page fault,
  826                  * unless it accesses the same virtual address as the most
  827                  * recent page fault within the same "no faulting" section.
  828                  */
  829                 if (td->td_md.md_spurflt_addr != eva ||
  830                     (td->td_pflags & TDP_RESETSPUR) != 0) {
  831                         /*
  832                          * Do nothing to the TLB.  A stale TLB entry is
  833                          * flushed automatically by a page fault.
  834                          */
  835                         td->td_md.md_spurflt_addr = eva;
  836                         td->td_pflags &= ~TDP_RESETSPUR;
  837                         return (0);
  838                 }
  839         } else {
  840                 /*
  841                  * If we get a page fault while in a critical section, then
  842                  * it is most likely a fatal kernel page fault.  The kernel
  843                  * is already going to panic trying to get a sleep lock to
  844                  * do the VM lookup, so just consider it a fatal trap so the
  845                  * kernel can print out a useful trap message and even get
  846                  * to the debugger.
  847                  *
  848                  * If we get a page fault while holding a non-sleepable
  849                  * lock, then it is most likely a fatal kernel page fault.
  850                  * If WITNESS is enabled, then it's going to whine about
  851                  * bogus LORs with various VM locks, so just skip to the
  852                  * fatal trap handling directly.
  853                  */
  854                 if (td->td_critnest != 0 ||
  855                     WITNESS_CHECK(WARN_SLEEPOK | WARN_GIANTOK, NULL,
  856                     "Kernel page fault") != 0) {
  857                         trap_fatal(frame, eva);
  858                         return (-1);
  859                 }
  860         }
  861         va = trunc_page(eva);
  862         if (va >= KERNBASE) {
  863                 /*
  864                  * Don't allow user-mode faults in kernel address space.
  865                  * An exception:  if the faulting address is the invalid
  866                  * instruction entry in the IDT, then the Intel Pentium
  867                  * F00F bug workaround was triggered, and we need to
  868                  * treat it is as an illegal instruction, and not a page
  869                  * fault.
  870                  */
  871 #if defined(I586_CPU) && !defined(NO_F00F_HACK)
  872                 if ((eva == (unsigned int)&idt[6]) && has_f00f_bug)
  873                         return -2;
  874 #endif
  875                 if (usermode)
  876                         goto nogo;
  877 
  878                 map = kernel_map;
  879         } else {
  880                 /*
  881                  * This is a fault on non-kernel virtual memory.
  882                  * vm is initialized above to NULL. If curproc is NULL
  883                  * or curproc->p_vmspace is NULL the fault is fatal.
  884                  */
  885                 if (p != NULL)
  886                         vm = p->p_vmspace;
  887 
  888                 if (vm == NULL)
  889                         goto nogo;
  890 
  891                 map = &vm->vm_map;
  892                 if (!usermode && (td->td_intr_nesting_level != 0 ||
  893                     curpcb->pcb_onfault == NULL)) {
  894                         trap_fatal(frame, eva);
  895                         return (-1);
  896                 }
  897         }
  898 
  899         /*
  900          * PGEX_I is defined only if the execute disable bit capability is
  901          * supported and enabled.
  902          */
  903         if (frame->tf_err & PGEX_W)
  904                 ftype = VM_PROT_WRITE;
  905 #ifdef PAE
  906         else if ((frame->tf_err & PGEX_I) && pg_nx != 0)
  907                 ftype = VM_PROT_EXECUTE;
  908 #endif
  909         else
  910                 ftype = VM_PROT_READ;
  911 
  912         if (map != kernel_map) {
  913                 /*
  914                  * Keep swapout from messing with us during this
  915                  *      critical time.
  916                  */
  917                 PROC_LOCK(p);
  918                 ++p->p_lock;
  919                 PROC_UNLOCK(p);
  920 
  921                 /* Fault in the user page: */
  922                 rv = vm_fault(map, va, ftype, VM_FAULT_NORMAL);
  923 
  924                 PROC_LOCK(p);
  925                 --p->p_lock;
  926                 PROC_UNLOCK(p);
  927         } else {
  928                 /*
  929                  * Don't have to worry about process locking or stacks in the
  930                  * kernel.
  931                  */
  932                 rv = vm_fault(map, va, ftype, VM_FAULT_NORMAL);
  933         }
  934         if (rv == KERN_SUCCESS) {
  935 #ifdef HWPMC_HOOKS
  936                 if (ftype == VM_PROT_READ || ftype == VM_PROT_WRITE) {
  937                         PMC_SOFT_CALL_TF( , , page_fault, all, frame);
  938                         if (ftype == VM_PROT_READ)
  939                                 PMC_SOFT_CALL_TF( , , page_fault, read,
  940                                     frame);
  941                         else
  942                                 PMC_SOFT_CALL_TF( , , page_fault, write,
  943                                     frame);
  944                 }
  945 #endif
  946                 return (0);
  947         }
  948 nogo:
  949         if (!usermode) {
  950                 if (td->td_intr_nesting_level == 0 &&
  951                     curpcb->pcb_onfault != NULL) {
  952                         frame->tf_eip = (int)curpcb->pcb_onfault;
  953                         return (0);
  954                 }
  955                 trap_fatal(frame, eva);
  956                 return (-1);
  957         }
  958 
  959         return((rv == KERN_PROTECTION_FAILURE) ? SIGBUS : SIGSEGV);
  960 }
  961 
  962 static void
  963 trap_fatal(frame, eva)
  964         struct trapframe *frame;
  965         vm_offset_t eva;
  966 {
  967         int code, ss, esp;
  968         u_int type;
  969         struct soft_segment_descriptor softseg;
  970         char *msg;
  971 
  972         code = frame->tf_err;
  973         type = frame->tf_trapno;
  974         sdtossd(&gdt[IDXSEL(frame->tf_cs & 0xffff)].sd, &softseg);
  975 
  976         if (type <= MAX_TRAP_MSG)
  977                 msg = trap_msg[type];
  978         else
  979                 msg = "UNKNOWN";
  980         printf("\n\nFatal trap %d: %s while in %s mode\n", type, msg,
  981             frame->tf_eflags & PSL_VM ? "vm86" :
  982             ISPL(frame->tf_cs) == SEL_UPL ? "user" : "kernel");
  983 #ifdef SMP
  984         /* two separate prints in case of a trap on an unmapped page */
  985         printf("cpuid = %d; ", PCPU_GET(cpuid));
  986         printf("apic id = %02x\n", PCPU_GET(apic_id));
  987 #endif
  988         if (type == T_PAGEFLT) {
  989                 printf("fault virtual address   = 0x%x\n", eva);
  990                 printf("fault code              = %s %s, %s\n",
  991                         code & PGEX_U ? "user" : "supervisor",
  992                         code & PGEX_W ? "write" : "read",
  993                         code & PGEX_P ? "protection violation" : "page not present");
  994         }
  995         printf("instruction pointer     = 0x%x:0x%x\n",
  996                frame->tf_cs & 0xffff, frame->tf_eip);
  997         if ((ISPL(frame->tf_cs) == SEL_UPL) || (frame->tf_eflags & PSL_VM)) {
  998                 ss = frame->tf_ss & 0xffff;
  999                 esp = frame->tf_esp;
 1000         } else {
 1001                 ss = GSEL(GDATA_SEL, SEL_KPL);
 1002                 esp = (int)&frame->tf_esp;
 1003         }
 1004         printf("stack pointer           = 0x%x:0x%x\n", ss, esp);
 1005         printf("frame pointer           = 0x%x:0x%x\n", ss, frame->tf_ebp);
 1006         printf("code segment            = base 0x%x, limit 0x%x, type 0x%x\n",
 1007                softseg.ssd_base, softseg.ssd_limit, softseg.ssd_type);
 1008         printf("                        = DPL %d, pres %d, def32 %d, gran %d\n",
 1009                softseg.ssd_dpl, softseg.ssd_p, softseg.ssd_def32,
 1010                softseg.ssd_gran);
 1011         printf("processor eflags        = ");
 1012         if (frame->tf_eflags & PSL_T)
 1013                 printf("trace trap, ");
 1014         if (frame->tf_eflags & PSL_I)
 1015                 printf("interrupt enabled, ");
 1016         if (frame->tf_eflags & PSL_NT)
 1017                 printf("nested task, ");
 1018         if (frame->tf_eflags & PSL_RF)
 1019                 printf("resume, ");
 1020         if (frame->tf_eflags & PSL_VM)
 1021                 printf("vm86, ");
 1022         printf("IOPL = %d\n", (frame->tf_eflags & PSL_IOPL) >> 12);
 1023         printf("current process         = %d (%s)\n",
 1024             curproc->p_pid, curthread->td_name);
 1025 
 1026 #ifdef KDB
 1027         if (debugger_on_panic || kdb_active) {
 1028                 frame->tf_err = eva;    /* smuggle fault address to ddb */
 1029                 if (kdb_trap(type, 0, frame)) {
 1030                         frame->tf_err = code;   /* restore error code */
 1031                         return;
 1032                 }
 1033                 frame->tf_err = code;           /* restore error code */
 1034         }
 1035 #endif
 1036         printf("trap number             = %d\n", type);
 1037         if (type <= MAX_TRAP_MSG)
 1038                 panic("%s", trap_msg[type]);
 1039         else
 1040                 panic("unknown/reserved trap");
 1041 }
 1042 
 1043 /*
 1044  * Double fault handler. Called when a fault occurs while writing
 1045  * a frame for a trap/exception onto the stack. This usually occurs
 1046  * when the stack overflows (such is the case with infinite recursion,
 1047  * for example).
 1048  *
 1049  * XXX Note that the current PTD gets replaced by IdlePTD when the
 1050  * task switch occurs. This means that the stack that was active at
 1051  * the time of the double fault is not available at <kstack> unless
 1052  * the machine was idle when the double fault occurred. The downside
 1053  * of this is that "trace <ebp>" in ddb won't work.
 1054  */
 1055 void
 1056 dblfault_handler()
 1057 {
 1058 #ifdef KDTRACE_HOOKS
 1059         if (dtrace_doubletrap_func != NULL)
 1060                 (*dtrace_doubletrap_func)();
 1061 #endif
 1062         printf("\nFatal double fault:\n");
 1063         printf("eip = 0x%x\n", PCPU_GET(common_tss.tss_eip));
 1064         printf("esp = 0x%x\n", PCPU_GET(common_tss.tss_esp));
 1065         printf("ebp = 0x%x\n", PCPU_GET(common_tss.tss_ebp));
 1066 #ifdef SMP
 1067         /* two separate prints in case of a trap on an unmapped page */
 1068         printf("cpuid = %d; ", PCPU_GET(cpuid));
 1069         printf("apic id = %02x\n", PCPU_GET(apic_id));
 1070 #endif
 1071         panic("double fault");
 1072 }
 1073 
 1074 int
 1075 cpu_fetch_syscall_args(struct thread *td, struct syscall_args *sa)
 1076 {
 1077         struct proc *p;
 1078         struct trapframe *frame;
 1079         caddr_t params;
 1080         int error;
 1081 
 1082         p = td->td_proc;
 1083         frame = td->td_frame;
 1084 
 1085         params = (caddr_t)frame->tf_esp + sizeof(int);
 1086         sa->code = frame->tf_eax;
 1087 
 1088         /*
 1089          * Need to check if this is a 32 bit or 64 bit syscall.
 1090          */
 1091         if (sa->code == SYS_syscall) {
 1092                 /*
 1093                  * Code is first argument, followed by actual args.
 1094                  */
 1095                 sa->code = fuword(params);
 1096                 params += sizeof(int);
 1097         } else if (sa->code == SYS___syscall) {
 1098                 /*
 1099                  * Like syscall, but code is a quad, so as to maintain
 1100                  * quad alignment for the rest of the arguments.
 1101                  */
 1102                 sa->code = fuword(params);
 1103                 params += sizeof(quad_t);
 1104         }
 1105 
 1106         if (p->p_sysent->sv_mask)
 1107                 sa->code &= p->p_sysent->sv_mask;
 1108         if (sa->code >= p->p_sysent->sv_size)
 1109                 sa->callp = &p->p_sysent->sv_table[0];
 1110         else
 1111                 sa->callp = &p->p_sysent->sv_table[sa->code];
 1112         sa->narg = sa->callp->sy_narg;
 1113 
 1114         if (params != NULL && sa->narg != 0)
 1115                 error = copyin(params, (caddr_t)sa->args,
 1116                     (u_int)(sa->narg * sizeof(int)));
 1117         else
 1118                 error = 0;
 1119 
 1120         if (error == 0) {
 1121                 td->td_retval[0] = 0;
 1122                 td->td_retval[1] = frame->tf_edx;
 1123         }
 1124                 
 1125         return (error);
 1126 }
 1127 
 1128 #include "../../kern/subr_syscall.c"
 1129 
 1130 /*
 1131  * syscall - system call request C handler.  A system call is
 1132  * essentially treated as a trap by reusing the frame layout.
 1133  */
 1134 void
 1135 syscall(struct trapframe *frame)
 1136 {
 1137         struct thread *td;
 1138         struct syscall_args sa;
 1139         register_t orig_tf_eflags;
 1140         int error;
 1141         ksiginfo_t ksi;
 1142 
 1143 #ifdef DIAGNOSTIC
 1144         if (ISPL(frame->tf_cs) != SEL_UPL) {
 1145                 panic("syscall");
 1146                 /* NOT REACHED */
 1147         }
 1148 #endif
 1149         orig_tf_eflags = frame->tf_eflags;
 1150 
 1151         td = curthread;
 1152         td->td_frame = frame;
 1153 
 1154         error = syscallenter(td, &sa);
 1155 
 1156         /*
 1157          * Traced syscall.
 1158          */
 1159         if ((orig_tf_eflags & PSL_T) && !(orig_tf_eflags & PSL_VM)) {
 1160                 frame->tf_eflags &= ~PSL_T;
 1161                 ksiginfo_init_trap(&ksi);
 1162                 ksi.ksi_signo = SIGTRAP;
 1163                 ksi.ksi_code = TRAP_TRACE;
 1164                 ksi.ksi_addr = (void *)frame->tf_eip;
 1165                 trapsignal(td, &ksi);
 1166         }
 1167 
 1168         KASSERT(PCB_USER_FPU(td->td_pcb),
 1169             ("System call %s returning with kernel FPU ctx leaked",
 1170              syscallname(td->td_proc, sa.code)));
 1171         KASSERT(td->td_pcb->pcb_save == &td->td_pcb->pcb_user_save,
 1172             ("System call %s returning with mangled pcb_save",
 1173              syscallname(td->td_proc, sa.code)));
 1174 
 1175         syscallret(td, error, &sa);
 1176 }

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