The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System, Second Edition
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FreeBSD/Linux Kernel Cross Reference
sys/i386/include/pmap.h

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    1 /*-
    2  * Copyright (c) 1991 Regents of the University of California.
    3  * All rights reserved.
    4  *
    5  * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
    6  * the Systems Programming Group of the University of Utah Computer
    7  * Science Department and William Jolitz of UUNET Technologies Inc.
    8  *
    9  * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
   10  * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
   11  * are met:
   12  * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
   13  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
   14  * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
   15  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
   16  *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
   17  * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
   18  *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
   19  *    without specific prior written permission.
   20  *
   21  * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
   22  * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
   23  * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
   24  * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
   25  * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
   26  * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
   27  * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
   28  * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
   29  * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
   30  * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
   31  * SUCH DAMAGE.
   32  *
   33  * Derived from hp300 version by Mike Hibler, this version by William
   34  * Jolitz uses a recursive map [a pde points to the page directory] to
   35  * map the page tables using the pagetables themselves. This is done to
   36  * reduce the impact on kernel virtual memory for lots of sparse address
   37  * space, and to reduce the cost of memory to each process.
   38  *
   39  *      from: hp300: @(#)pmap.h 7.2 (Berkeley) 12/16/90
   40  *      from: @(#)pmap.h        7.4 (Berkeley) 5/12/91
   41  * $FreeBSD: releng/11.2/sys/i386/include/pmap.h 331722 2018-03-29 02:50:57Z eadler $
   42  */
   43 
   44 #ifndef _MACHINE_PMAP_H_
   45 #define _MACHINE_PMAP_H_
   46 
   47 /*
   48  * Page-directory and page-table entries follow this format, with a few
   49  * of the fields not present here and there, depending on a lot of things.
   50  */
   51                                 /* ---- Intel Nomenclature ---- */
   52 #define PG_V            0x001   /* P    Valid                   */
   53 #define PG_RW           0x002   /* R/W  Read/Write              */
   54 #define PG_U            0x004   /* U/S  User/Supervisor         */
   55 #define PG_NC_PWT       0x008   /* PWT  Write through           */
   56 #define PG_NC_PCD       0x010   /* PCD  Cache disable           */
   57 #define PG_A            0x020   /* A    Accessed                */
   58 #define PG_M            0x040   /* D    Dirty                   */
   59 #define PG_PS           0x080   /* PS   Page size (0=4k,1=4M)   */
   60 #define PG_PTE_PAT      0x080   /* PAT  PAT index               */
   61 #define PG_G            0x100   /* G    Global                  */
   62 #define PG_AVAIL1       0x200   /*    / Available for system    */
   63 #define PG_AVAIL2       0x400   /*   <  programmers use         */
   64 #define PG_AVAIL3       0x800   /*    \                         */
   65 #define PG_PDE_PAT      0x1000  /* PAT  PAT index               */
   66 #if defined(PAE) || defined(PAE_TABLES)
   67 #define PG_NX           (1ull<<63) /* No-execute */
   68 #endif
   69 
   70 
   71 /* Our various interpretations of the above */
   72 #define PG_W            PG_AVAIL1       /* "Wired" pseudoflag */
   73 #define PG_MANAGED      PG_AVAIL2
   74 #define PG_PROMOTED     PG_AVAIL3       /* PDE only */
   75 #if defined(PAE) || defined(PAE_TABLES)
   76 #define PG_FRAME        (0x000ffffffffff000ull)
   77 #define PG_PS_FRAME     (0x000fffffffe00000ull)
   78 #else
   79 #define PG_FRAME        (~PAGE_MASK)
   80 #define PG_PS_FRAME     (0xffc00000)
   81 #endif
   82 #define PG_PROT         (PG_RW|PG_U)    /* all protection bits . */
   83 #define PG_N            (PG_NC_PWT|PG_NC_PCD)   /* Non-cacheable */
   84 
   85 /* Page level cache control fields used to determine the PAT type */
   86 #define PG_PDE_CACHE    (PG_PDE_PAT | PG_NC_PWT | PG_NC_PCD)
   87 #define PG_PTE_CACHE    (PG_PTE_PAT | PG_NC_PWT | PG_NC_PCD)
   88 
   89 /*
   90  * Promotion to a 2 or 4MB (PDE) page mapping requires that the corresponding
   91  * 4KB (PTE) page mappings have identical settings for the following fields:
   92  */
   93 #define PG_PTE_PROMOTE  (PG_MANAGED | PG_W | PG_G | PG_PTE_PAT | \
   94             PG_M | PG_A | PG_NC_PCD | PG_NC_PWT | PG_U | PG_RW | PG_V)
   95 
   96 /*
   97  * Page Protection Exception bits
   98  */
   99 
  100 #define PGEX_P          0x01    /* Protection violation vs. not present */
  101 #define PGEX_W          0x02    /* during a Write cycle */
  102 #define PGEX_U          0x04    /* access from User mode (UPL) */
  103 #define PGEX_RSV        0x08    /* reserved PTE field is non-zero */
  104 #define PGEX_I          0x10    /* during an instruction fetch */
  105 
  106 /*
  107  * Size of Kernel address space.  This is the number of page table pages
  108  * (4MB each) to use for the kernel.  256 pages == 1 Gigabyte.
  109  * This **MUST** be a multiple of 4 (eg: 252, 256, 260, etc).
  110  * For PAE, the page table page unit size is 2MB.  This means that 512 pages
  111  * is 1 Gigabyte.  Double everything.  It must be a multiple of 8 for PAE.
  112  */
  113 #ifndef KVA_PAGES
  114 #if defined(PAE) || defined(PAE_TABLES)
  115 #define KVA_PAGES       512
  116 #else
  117 #define KVA_PAGES       256
  118 #endif
  119 #endif
  120 
  121 /*
  122  * Pte related macros
  123  */
  124 #define VADDR(pdi, pti) ((vm_offset_t)(((pdi)<<PDRSHIFT)|((pti)<<PAGE_SHIFT)))
  125 
  126 /*
  127  * The initial number of kernel page table pages that are constructed
  128  * by locore must be sufficient to map vm_page_array.  That number can
  129  * be calculated as follows:
  130  *     max_phys / PAGE_SIZE * sizeof(struct vm_page) / NBPDR
  131  * PAE:      max_phys 16G, sizeof(vm_page) 76, NBPDR 2M, 152 page table pages.
  132  * PAE_TABLES: max_phys 4G,  sizeof(vm_page) 68, NBPDR 2M, 36 page table pages.
  133  * Non-PAE:  max_phys 4G,  sizeof(vm_page) 68, NBPDR 4M, 18 page table pages.
  134  */
  135 #ifndef NKPT
  136 #if defined(PAE)
  137 #define NKPT            240
  138 #elif defined(PAE_TABLES)
  139 #define NKPT            60
  140 #else
  141 #define NKPT            30
  142 #endif
  143 #endif
  144 
  145 #ifndef NKPDE
  146 #define NKPDE   (KVA_PAGES)     /* number of page tables/pde's */
  147 #endif
  148 
  149 /*
  150  * The *PTDI values control the layout of virtual memory
  151  *
  152  * XXX This works for now, but I am not real happy with it, I'll fix it
  153  * right after I fix locore.s and the magic 28K hole
  154  */
  155 #define KPTDI           (NPDEPTD-NKPDE) /* start of kernel virtual pde's */
  156 #define PTDPTDI         (KPTDI-NPGPTD)  /* ptd entry that points to ptd! */
  157 
  158 /*
  159  * XXX doesn't really belong here I guess...
  160  */
  161 #define ISA_HOLE_START    0xa0000
  162 #define ISA_HOLE_LENGTH (0x100000-ISA_HOLE_START)
  163 
  164 #ifndef LOCORE
  165 
  166 #include <sys/queue.h>
  167 #include <sys/_cpuset.h>
  168 #include <sys/_lock.h>
  169 #include <sys/_mutex.h>
  170 
  171 #include <vm/_vm_radix.h>
  172 
  173 #if defined(PAE) || defined(PAE_TABLES)
  174 
  175 typedef uint64_t pdpt_entry_t;
  176 typedef uint64_t pd_entry_t;
  177 typedef uint64_t pt_entry_t;
  178 
  179 #define PTESHIFT        (3)
  180 #define PDESHIFT        (3)
  181 
  182 #else
  183 
  184 typedef uint32_t pd_entry_t;
  185 typedef uint32_t pt_entry_t;
  186 
  187 #define PTESHIFT        (2)
  188 #define PDESHIFT        (2)
  189 
  190 #endif
  191 
  192 /*
  193  * Address of current address space page table maps and directories.
  194  */
  195 #ifdef _KERNEL
  196 extern pt_entry_t PTmap[];
  197 extern pd_entry_t PTD[];
  198 extern pd_entry_t PTDpde[];
  199 
  200 #if defined(PAE) || defined(PAE_TABLES)
  201 extern pdpt_entry_t *IdlePDPT;
  202 #endif
  203 extern pd_entry_t *IdlePTD;     /* physical address of "Idle" state directory */
  204 
  205 /*
  206  * Translate a virtual address to the kernel virtual address of its page table
  207  * entry (PTE).  This can be used recursively.  If the address of a PTE as
  208  * previously returned by this macro is itself given as the argument, then the
  209  * address of the page directory entry (PDE) that maps the PTE will be
  210  * returned.
  211  *
  212  * This macro may be used before pmap_bootstrap() is called.
  213  */
  214 #define vtopte(va)      (PTmap + i386_btop(va))
  215 
  216 /*
  217  * Translate a virtual address to its physical address.
  218  *
  219  * This macro may be used before pmap_bootstrap() is called.
  220  */
  221 #define vtophys(va)     pmap_kextract((vm_offset_t)(va))
  222 
  223 /*
  224  * KPTmap is a linear mapping of the kernel page table.  It differs from the
  225  * recursive mapping in two ways: (1) it only provides access to kernel page
  226  * table pages, and not user page table pages, and (2) it provides access to
  227  * a kernel page table page after the corresponding virtual addresses have
  228  * been promoted to a 2/4MB page mapping.
  229  *
  230  * KPTmap is first initialized by locore to support just NPKT page table
  231  * pages.  Later, it is reinitialized by pmap_bootstrap() to allow for
  232  * expansion of the kernel page table.
  233  */
  234 extern pt_entry_t *KPTmap;
  235 
  236 /*
  237  * Extract from the kernel page table the physical address that is mapped by
  238  * the given virtual address "va".
  239  *
  240  * This function may be used before pmap_bootstrap() is called.
  241  */
  242 static __inline vm_paddr_t
  243 pmap_kextract(vm_offset_t va)
  244 {
  245         vm_paddr_t pa;
  246 
  247         if ((pa = PTD[va >> PDRSHIFT]) & PG_PS) {
  248                 pa = (pa & PG_PS_FRAME) | (va & PDRMASK);
  249         } else {
  250                 /*
  251                  * Beware of a concurrent promotion that changes the PDE at
  252                  * this point!  For example, vtopte() must not be used to
  253                  * access the PTE because it would use the new PDE.  It is,
  254                  * however, safe to use the old PDE because the page table
  255                  * page is preserved by the promotion.
  256                  */
  257                 pa = KPTmap[i386_btop(va)];
  258                 pa = (pa & PG_FRAME) | (va & PAGE_MASK);
  259         }
  260         return (pa);
  261 }
  262 
  263 #if (defined(PAE) || defined(PAE_TABLES))
  264 
  265 #define pde_cmpset(pdep, old, new)      atomic_cmpset_64_i586(pdep, old, new)
  266 #define pte_load_store(ptep, pte)       atomic_swap_64_i586(ptep, pte)
  267 #define pte_load_clear(ptep)            atomic_swap_64_i586(ptep, 0)
  268 #define pte_store(ptep, pte)            atomic_store_rel_64_i586(ptep, pte)
  269 
  270 extern pt_entry_t pg_nx;
  271 
  272 #else /* !(PAE || PAE_TABLES) */
  273 
  274 #define pde_cmpset(pdep, old, new)      atomic_cmpset_int(pdep, old, new)
  275 #define pte_load_store(ptep, pte)       atomic_swap_int(ptep, pte)
  276 #define pte_load_clear(ptep)            atomic_swap_int(ptep, 0)
  277 #define pte_store(ptep, pte) do { \
  278         *(u_int *)(ptep) = (u_int)(pte); \
  279 } while (0)
  280 
  281 #endif /* !(PAE || PAE_TABLES) */
  282 
  283 #define pte_clear(ptep)                 pte_store(ptep, 0)
  284 
  285 #define pde_store(pdep, pde)            pte_store(pdep, pde)
  286 
  287 #endif /* _KERNEL */
  288 
  289 /*
  290  * Pmap stuff
  291  */
  292 struct  pv_entry;
  293 struct  pv_chunk;
  294 
  295 struct md_page {
  296         TAILQ_HEAD(,pv_entry)   pv_list;
  297         int                     pat_mode;
  298 };
  299 
  300 struct pmap {
  301         struct mtx              pm_mtx;
  302         pd_entry_t              *pm_pdir;       /* KVA of page directory */
  303         TAILQ_HEAD(,pv_chunk)   pm_pvchunk;     /* list of mappings in pmap */
  304         cpuset_t                pm_active;      /* active on cpus */
  305         struct pmap_statistics  pm_stats;       /* pmap statistics */
  306         LIST_ENTRY(pmap)        pm_list;        /* List of all pmaps */
  307 #if defined(PAE) || defined(PAE_TABLES)
  308         pdpt_entry_t            *pm_pdpt;       /* KVA of page directory pointer
  309                                                    table */
  310 #endif
  311         struct vm_radix         pm_root;        /* spare page table pages */
  312 };
  313 
  314 typedef struct pmap     *pmap_t;
  315 
  316 #ifdef _KERNEL
  317 extern struct pmap      kernel_pmap_store;
  318 #define kernel_pmap     (&kernel_pmap_store)
  319 
  320 #define PMAP_LOCK(pmap)         mtx_lock(&(pmap)->pm_mtx)
  321 #define PMAP_LOCK_ASSERT(pmap, type) \
  322                                 mtx_assert(&(pmap)->pm_mtx, (type))
  323 #define PMAP_LOCK_DESTROY(pmap) mtx_destroy(&(pmap)->pm_mtx)
  324 #define PMAP_LOCK_INIT(pmap)    mtx_init(&(pmap)->pm_mtx, "pmap", \
  325                                     NULL, MTX_DEF | MTX_DUPOK)
  326 #define PMAP_LOCKED(pmap)       mtx_owned(&(pmap)->pm_mtx)
  327 #define PMAP_MTX(pmap)          (&(pmap)->pm_mtx)
  328 #define PMAP_TRYLOCK(pmap)      mtx_trylock(&(pmap)->pm_mtx)
  329 #define PMAP_UNLOCK(pmap)       mtx_unlock(&(pmap)->pm_mtx)
  330 #endif
  331 
  332 /*
  333  * For each vm_page_t, there is a list of all currently valid virtual
  334  * mappings of that page.  An entry is a pv_entry_t, the list is pv_list.
  335  */
  336 typedef struct pv_entry {
  337         vm_offset_t     pv_va;          /* virtual address for mapping */
  338         TAILQ_ENTRY(pv_entry)   pv_next;
  339 } *pv_entry_t;
  340 
  341 /*
  342  * pv_entries are allocated in chunks per-process.  This avoids the
  343  * need to track per-pmap assignments.
  344  */
  345 #define _NPCM   11
  346 #define _NPCPV  336
  347 struct pv_chunk {
  348         pmap_t                  pc_pmap;
  349         TAILQ_ENTRY(pv_chunk)   pc_list;
  350         uint32_t                pc_map[_NPCM];  /* bitmap; 1 = free */
  351         TAILQ_ENTRY(pv_chunk)   pc_lru;
  352         struct pv_entry         pc_pventry[_NPCPV];
  353 };
  354 
  355 #ifdef  _KERNEL
  356 
  357 extern caddr_t  CADDR3;
  358 extern pt_entry_t *CMAP3;
  359 extern vm_paddr_t phys_avail[];
  360 extern vm_paddr_t dump_avail[];
  361 extern int pseflag;
  362 extern int pgeflag;
  363 extern char *ptvmmap;           /* poor name! */
  364 extern vm_offset_t virtual_avail;
  365 extern vm_offset_t virtual_end;
  366 
  367 #define pmap_page_get_memattr(m)        ((vm_memattr_t)(m)->md.pat_mode)
  368 #define pmap_page_is_write_mapped(m)    (((m)->aflags & PGA_WRITEABLE) != 0)
  369 #define pmap_unmapbios(va, sz)  pmap_unmapdev((va), (sz))
  370 
  371 /*
  372  * Only the following functions or macros may be used before pmap_bootstrap()
  373  * is called: pmap_kenter(), pmap_kextract(), pmap_kremove(), vtophys(), and
  374  * vtopte().
  375  */
  376 void    pmap_bootstrap(vm_paddr_t);
  377 int     pmap_cache_bits(int mode, boolean_t is_pde);
  378 int     pmap_change_attr(vm_offset_t, vm_size_t, int);
  379 void    pmap_init_pat(void);
  380 void    pmap_kenter(vm_offset_t va, vm_paddr_t pa);
  381 void    *pmap_kenter_temporary(vm_paddr_t pa, int i);
  382 void    pmap_kremove(vm_offset_t);
  383 void    *pmap_mapbios(vm_paddr_t, vm_size_t);
  384 void    *pmap_mapdev(vm_paddr_t, vm_size_t);
  385 void    *pmap_mapdev_attr(vm_paddr_t, vm_size_t, int);
  386 boolean_t pmap_page_is_mapped(vm_page_t m);
  387 void    pmap_page_set_memattr(vm_page_t m, vm_memattr_t ma);
  388 void    pmap_unmapdev(vm_offset_t, vm_size_t);
  389 pt_entry_t *pmap_pte(pmap_t, vm_offset_t) __pure2;
  390 void    pmap_invalidate_page(pmap_t, vm_offset_t);
  391 void    pmap_invalidate_range(pmap_t, vm_offset_t, vm_offset_t);
  392 void    pmap_invalidate_all(pmap_t);
  393 void    pmap_invalidate_cache(void);
  394 void    pmap_invalidate_cache_pages(vm_page_t *pages, int count);
  395 void    pmap_invalidate_cache_range(vm_offset_t sva, vm_offset_t eva,
  396             boolean_t force);
  397 
  398 void    invltlb_glob(void);
  399 
  400 #endif /* _KERNEL */
  401 
  402 #endif /* !LOCORE */
  403 
  404 #endif /* !_MACHINE_PMAP_H_ */

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