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    1 $FreeBSD: releng/5.0/sys/i386/isa/README.stl 59874 2000-05-01 20:32:07Z peter $
    3 Stallion Multiport Serial Driver Readme
    4 ---------------------------------------
    6 Version: 0.0.5 alpha
    7 Date:    20MAR96
    8 Author:  Greg Ungerer (
   14 This is a FreeBSD driver for some of the Stallion Technologies range of
   15 multiport serial boards. This driver is still very new, so it should be
   16 considered to be of very alpha quality.
   18 This driver has not been developed by Stallion Technologies. I developed it
   19 in my spare time in the hope that it would be useful. As such there is no
   20 warranty or support of any form. What this means is that this driver is not
   21 officially supported by Stallion Technologies, so don't ring their support
   22 if you can't get it working. They will probably not be able to help you.
   23 Instead email me if you have problems or bug reports and I will do what I
   24 can... (Sorry to sound so heavy handed, but I need to stress that this driver
   25 is not officially supported in any way.)
   27 This package actually contains two drivers. One is for the true Stallion
   28 intelligent multiport boards, and the other is for the smart range of boards.
   30 All host driver source is included in this package, and is copyrighted under
   31 a BSD style copyright. The board "firmware" code in this package is copyright
   32 Stallion Technologies (the files cdk.sys and 2681.sys).
   37 This driver supports the EasyIO and EasyConnection 8/32 range of boards.
   38 These boards are not classic intelligent multiport boards, but are host
   39 based multiport boards that use high performance Cirrus Logic CL-CD1400 RISC
   40 UART's (they have built in FIFO's, automatic flow control and some other
   41 good stuff).
   43 The EasyIO range of cards comes in 3 forms, the EasyIO-4, EasyIO-8 and the
   44 EasyIO-8M. All of these are non-expandable, low cost, ISA, multiport boards
   45 with 4, 8 and 8 RS-232C ports respectively. Each EasyIO board requires 8
   46 bytes of I/O address space and 1 interrupt. On an EISA system it is possible
   47 to share 1 interrupt between multiple boards. The EasyIO-4 has 10 pin RJ
   48 connectors, and the EasyIO-8 comes with a dongle cable with either 10 pin RJ
   49 connectors or DB-25 connectors. The EasyIO-8M has 6 pin RJ connectors.
   51 The EasyConnection 8/32 family of boards is a relatively low cost modular
   52 range of multiport serial boards. The EasyConnection 8/32 boards can be
   53 configured to have from 8 to 32 serial ports by plugging in external serial
   54 port modules that contain either 8 or 16 ports each. There is a wide range
   55 of external modules available that offer: DB-25 connectors, RJ-45 connectors
   56 (both with RS-232 D and E compatible drivers), and also RS-422 and RS-485
   57 ports. The EasyConnection 8/32 boards come in ISA, PCI and MCA bus versions.
   58 The board takes the form of a host adapter card, with an external connector
   59 cable that plugs into the external modules. The external modules just clip
   60 together to add ports (BTW, they are NOT hot pluggable). Each ISA
   61 EasyConnection 8/32 board requires two separate I/O address ranges, one two
   62 bytes in size and a secondary region of 32 bytes. Each PCI EasyConnection
   63 8/32 requires two regions of I/O address space, normally these will be
   64 automatically allocated by the system BIOS at system power on time. Each MCA
   65 EasyConnection board requires one I/O address region 64 bytes in size. All
   66 board types also require one interrupt. On EISA systems multiple boards can
   67 share one interrupt. The secondary I/O range of the ISA board (the 32 byte
   68 range) can be shared between multiple boards on any bus type.
   73 This driver is for Stallion's range of true intelligent multiport boards.
   74 It supports the EasyConnection 8/64, ONboard, Brumby and original Stallion
   75 families of multiport boards. The EasyConnection 8/64 and ONboard boards come
   76 in ISA, EISA and Microchannel bus versions. The Brumby and Stallion boards
   77 are only available in ISA versions.
   79 The EasyConnection 8/64 family of boards is a medium cost, high performance,
   80 modular range of intelligent multiport serial boards. The EasyConnection 8/64
   81 boards can be configured to have from 8 to 64 serial ports by plugging in
   82 external serial port modules that contain either 8 or 16 ports each (these
   83 modules are the same used by the EasyConnection 8/32 board). There is a wide
   84 range of external modules available that offer: DB-25 connectors, RJ-45
   85 connectors (both with RS-232 D and E compatible drivers), and also RS-422 and
   86 RS-485 ports. The board takes the form of a host adapter card, with an external
   87 connector cable that plugs into the external modules. The external modules
   88 just clip together to add ports (BTW, they are NOT hot pluggable). Each
   89 EasyConnection 8/64 board requires 4 bytes of I/O address space and a region
   90 of memory space. The size of the memory region required depends on the exact
   91 board type. The EISA version requires 64 Kbytes of address space (that can
   92 reside anywhere in the 4 Gigabyte physical address space). The ISA and MCA
   93 boards require 4 Kbytes of address space (which must reside in the lower
   94 1 Mbyte of physical address space - typically in the c8000 to e0000 range).
   95 No interrupts are required. The physical memory region of multiple
   96 EasyConnection 8/64 boards can be shared, but each board must have a separate
   97 I/O address space.
   99 The ONboard family of boards are traditional intelligent multiport serial
  100 boards. They are Stallion's older range of boards with a limited expansion
  101 capability. They come in 4, 8, 12, 16 and 32 port versions. The board uses
  102 the same base card (which has 4 ports on it) and is expanded to more ports
  103 via a mezzanine board that attaches directly onto the board. External panels
  104 plug into the ONboard providing RS-232C ports with DB-25 plugs. An RS-422
  105 DB-25 dual interface panel is also available. The ISA and microchannel
  106 ONboards require 16 bytes of I/O address space and 64K bytes of memory
  107 space. The memory space can be anywhere in the 16 Mbyte ISA bus address
  108 range. No interrupt is required. The EISA ONboard requires 64 Kbytes of
  109 memory space that can be anywhere in the 4 Gigabyte physical address space.
  110 All ONboard boards can share their memory region with other ONboards (or
  111 EasyConnection 8/64 boards).
  113 The Brumby family of boards are traditional, low cost intelligent multiport
  114 serial boards. They are non-expandable and come in 4, 8 and 16 port versions.
  115 They are only available for the ISA bus. The serial ports are all on DB-25
  116 "dongle" cables that attach to the rear of the board. Each Brumby board
  117 requires 16 bytes of I/O address space and 16 Kbytes of memory space. No
  118 interrupts are required.
  120 The original Stallion boards are old. They went out of production some years
  121 back. They offer limited expandability and are available in 8 or 16 port
  122 configurations. An external panel houses 16 RS-232C ports with DB-9
  123 connectors. They require 16 bytes of I/O address space, and either 64K or
  124 128K of memory space. No interrupt is required. I will not actively support
  125 these boards, although they will work with the driver.
  127 That's the boards supported by the second driver. The ONboard, Brumby and
  128 Stallion boards are Stallion's older range of intelligent multiports - so
  129 there are lots of them around. They only support a maximum baud rate of
  130 38400. The EasyConnection 8/64 is a true high performance intelligent
  131 multiport board, having much greater throughput than any of Stallion's
  132 older boards. It also supports speeds up to 115200 baud.
  137 Stallion Technologies has offices all over the world, as well as many more
  138 distributors and resellers. To find out about local availability please
  139 contact the nearest Stallion office and they can give you all the information
  140 you need.
  142         Stallion Technologies Sales and Support Offices
  143         ===============================================
  145         Stallion Technologies Pty. Ltd.
  146         P.O. Box 954
  147         Toowong, QLD 4066, Australia
  148         Tel. +61 7 3270 4242
  149         Fax. +61 7 3270 4245
  150         Email:
  152         Stallion Technologies Inc.
  153         2880 Research Park Drive,
  154         Soquel,  CA 95073,  USA.
  155         Tel. +1 408 477 0440
  156         Fax. +1 408 477 0444
  157         Email:
  159         Stallion Technologies Deutschland GmbH.
  160         Martin-Behaim-Strasse 12
  161         63263 Neu-Isenburg
  162         Germany
  163         Tel. +49 6102 73970
  164         Fax. +49 6102 739710
  166 Another good source of information about the Stallion range of boards and
  167 local availability is on the Stallion Web page. Check it out at
  174 This driver, as is, will work on a FreeBSD 2.1 system. It will run on
  175 a 2.0.5 system, or -current version systems by changing a define in the
  176 driver source.
  178 You will need to build a new kernel to use this driver. So the first thing
  179 you need is to have the full kernel source. Most people will have this
  180 (I hope!). The following assumes that the kernel source is in /usr/src/sys.
  182 The drivers can support up to 8 boards. For the smart board driver any
  183 combination of EasyIO and EasyConnection 8/32 boards can be installed. For
  184 the intelligent any combination of EasyConnection 8/64, ONboard, Brumby or
  185 original Stallion. So there is a theoretical maximum of 512 ports.
  186 (Off-course I have not tested a system with this many!)
  189 [[[ The install instructions are obsolete, it is now standard ]]]
  190 [[[ Skip forward to item 4, editing your kernel config file   ]]]
  192 2.1 Instructions to install:
  194 1. Copy the driver source files into the kernel source tree.
  196         cp stallion.c istallion.c cdk.h comstats.h /usr/src/sys/i386/isa
  197         cp scd1400.h /usr/src/sys/i386/isa/ic
  199    Note: if you are NOT using FreeBSD 2.1.0 then you will need to edit the
  200    stallion.c and istallion.c files and change the VFREEBSD define to match
  201    your version.
  203 2. Skip to next step if on a FreeBSD kernel later than 2.1.0.
  204    Add a character device switch table entry for the driver that you which
  205    to use into the cdevsw table structure. This involves adding some code
  206    into the kernel conf.c file. 
  208    If you are using an EasyIO or EasyConnection 8/32 then you need to use
  209    the stallion.c driver. All other board types (EasyConnection 8/64,
  210    ONboard, Brumby, Stallion) use the istallion.c driver. You can also have
  211    a mix of boards using both drivers. You will need to use a different
  212    major device number for the second driver though (not the default 72 -
  213    see below for more details on this).
  215 2.1. If using the stallion.c driver then do:
  217         cd /usr/src/sys/i386/i386
  218         vi conf.c
  219             - add the following lines (in 2.1 I put them at line 729):
  221 /* Stallion Multiport Serial Driver */
  222 #include "stl.h"
  223 #if     NSTL > 0
  224 d_open_t        stlopen;
  225 d_close_t       stlclose;
  226 d_read_t        stlread;
  227 d_write_t       stlwrite;
  228 d_ioctl_t       stlioctl;
  229 d_stop_t        stlstop;
  230 d_ttycv_t       stldevtotty;
  231 #define stlreset        nxreset
  232 #define stlmmap         nxmmap
  233 #define stlstrategy     nxstrategy
  234 #else
  235 #define stlopen         nxopen
  236 #define stlclose        nxclose
  237 #define stlread         nxread
  238 #define stlwrite        nxwrite
  239 #define stlioctl        nxioctl
  240 #define stlstop         nxstop
  241 #define stlreset        nxreset
  242 #define stlmmap         nxmmap
  243 #define stlstrategy     nxstrategy
  244 #define stldevtotty     nxdevtotty
  245 #endif
  248             - and then inside the actual cdevsw structure definition, at the
  249               last entry add (this is now line 1384 in the 2.1 conf.c):
  251         { stlopen,      stlclose,       stlread,        stlwrite,       /*72*/
  252           stlioctl,     stlstop,        stlreset,       stldevtotty,/*stallion*/
  253           ttselect,     stlmmap,        stlstrategy },
  255             - the line above used major number 72, but this may be different
  256               on your system. Take note of what major number you are using.
  258             - save the file and exit vi.
  261 2.2. If using the istallion.c driver then do:
  263         cd /usr/src/sys/i386/i386
  264         vi conf.c
  265             - add the following lines (in 2.1 I put them at line 729):
  267 /* Stallion Intelligent Multiport Serial Driver */
  268 #include "stl.h"
  269 #if     NSTL > 0
  270 d_open_t        stliopen;
  271 d_close_t       stliclose;
  272 d_read_t        stliread;
  273 d_write_t       stliwrite;
  274 d_ioctl_t       stliioctl;
  275 d_stop_t        stlistop;
  276 d_ttycv_t       stlidevtotty;
  277 #define stlireset       nxreset
  278 #define stlimmap        nxmmap
  279 #define stlistrategy    nxstrategy
  280 #else
  281 #define stliopen        nxopen
  282 #define stliclose       nxclose
  283 #define stliread        nxread
  284 #define stliwrite       nxwrite
  285 #define stliioctl       nxioctl
  286 #define stlistop        nxstop
  287 #define stlireset       nxreset
  288 #define stlimmap        nxmmap
  289 #define stlistrategy    nxstrategy
  290 #define stlidevtotty    nxdevtotty
  291 #endif
  294             - and then inside the actual cdevsw structure definition, at the
  295               last entry add (this is now line 1384 in the 2.1 conf.c):
  297         { stliopen,     stliclose,      stliread,     stliwrite,        /*72*/
  298           stliioctl,    stlistop,       stlireset,    stlidevtotty,/*istallion*/
  299           ttselect,     stlimmap,       stlistrategy },
  301             - the line above used major number 72, but this may be different
  302               on your system. Take note of what major number you are using.
  304             - save the file and exit vi.
  306 3. Add the driver source files to the kernel files list:
  308         cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf
  309         vi files.i386
  310             - add the following definition lines into the list (it is stored
  311               alphabetically, so insert them appropriately):
  313 i386/isa/istallion.c            optional        stli    device-driver
  315 i386/isa/stallion.c             optional        stl     device-driver
  317             - save the file and exit vi.
  319 4. Add board probe entries into the kernel configuration file:
  321         cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf
  322         cp GENERIC MYKERNEL
  323             - if you already have a kernel config that you use then you
  324               could just use that (instead of MYKERNEL)
  325         vi MYKERNEL
  326             - if only using ECH-PCI boards then you don't need to enter a
  327               configuration line, the kernel will automatically detect
  328               the board at boot up, so skip to step 5.
  329             - enter a line for each board that you want to use. For stallion.c
  330               boards entries should look like:
  332 device          stl0    at isa? port 0x2a0 tty irq 10
  334               For istallion.c boards, the entries should look like:
  336 device          stli0   at isa? port 0x2a0 tty iomem 0xcc000 iosiz 0x1000 flags 23
  338               (I suggest you put them after the sio? entries)
  339               (Don't enter lines for ECH-PCI boards)
  340             - change the entry resources as required. For the Stallion.c
  341               entries this may involve changing the port address or irq.
  342               For the istallion.c entries this may involve changing the port
  343               address, iomem address, iosiz value and the flags. Select from
  344               the following table for appropriate flags and iosiz values for
  345               your board type:
  347               EasyConnection 8/64 ISA:     flags 23         iosiz 0x1000
  348               EasyConnection 8/64 EISA:    flags 24         iosiz 0x10000
  349               EasyConnection 8/64 MCA:     flags 25         iosiz 0x1000
  350               ONboard ISA:                 flags 4          iosiz 0x10000
  351               ONboard EISA:                flags 7          iosiz 0x10000
  352               ONboard MCA:                 flags 3          iosiz 0x10000
  353               Brumby:                      flags 2          iosiz 0x4000
  354               Stallion:                    flags 1          iosiz 0x10000
  356             - save the file and exit
  358 5. Build a new kernel using this configuration.
  360         cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf
  361         config MYKERNEL
  362         cd ../../compile/MYKERNEL
  363         make depend
  364         make all
  365         make install
  368 And there you have it!  It is a little bit of effort to get it in there...
  370 Once you have a new kernel built reboot to start it up. On startup the
  371 Stallion board probes will report on whether the boards were found or not.
  372 For each board found the driver will print out the type of board found,
  373 and how many panels and ports it has. 
  375 If a board is not found by the driver but is actually in the system then the
  376 most likely problem is that the IO address is incorrect. The easiest thing to
  377 do is change the DIP switches on the board to the desired address and reboot.
  379 On EasyIO and EasyConnection 8/32 boards the IRQ is software programmable,
  380 so if there is a conflict you may need to change the IRQ used for a board in
  381 the MYKERNEL configuration file and rebuild the kernel.
  383 Note that the secondary IO address of the EasyConnection 8/32 boards is hard
  384 coded into the stallion.c driver code. It is currently set to IO address
  385 0x280. If you need to use a different address then you will need to edit this
  386 file and change the variable named stl_ioshared.
  388 On intelligent boards it is possible that the board shared memory region is
  389 clashing with that of some other device. Check for this and change the device
  390 or kernel configuration as required.
  395 The intelligent boards also need to have their "firmware" code downloaded
  396 to them. This is done via a user level application supplied in the driver
  397 package called "stlload". Compile this program where ever you dropped the
  398 package files, by typing "make". In its simplest form you can then type
  399     ./stlload -i cdk.sys
  400 in this directory and that will download board 0 (assuming board 0 is an
  401 EasyConnection 8/64 board). To download to an ONboard, Brumby or Stallion do:
  402     ./stlload -i 2681.sys
  404 Normally you would want all boards to be downloaded as part of the standard
  405 system startup. To achieve this, add one of the lines above into the
  406 /etc/rc.serial file. To download each board just add the "-b <brd-number>"
  407 option to the line. You will need to download code for every board. You should
  408 probably move the stlload program into a system directory, such as /usr/sbin.
  409 Also, the default location of the cdk.sys image file in the stlload
  410 down-loader is /usr/lib/stallion. Create that directory and put the cdk.sys
  411 and 2681.sys files in it. (It's a convenient place to put them anyway). As an
  412 example your /etc/rc.serial file might have the following lines added to it
  413 (if you had 3 boards):
  414     /usr/sbin/stlload -b 0 -i /usr/lib/stallion/cdk.sys
  415     /usr/sbin/stlload -b 1 -i /usr/lib/stallion/2681.sys
  416     /usr/sbin/stlload -b 2 -i /usr/lib/stallion/2681.sys
  418 The image files cdk.sys and 2681.sys are specific to the board types. The
  419 cdk.sys will only function correctly on an EasyConnection 8/64 board. Similarly
  420 the 2681.sys image will only operate on ONboard, Brumby and Stallion boards.
  421 If you load the wrong image file into a board it will fail to start up, and
  422 of course the ports will not be operational!
  428 Once the driver is installed you will need to setup some device nodes to
  429 access the serial ports. Use the supplied "mkdevnods" script to automatically
  430 create all required device entries for your boards. To make device nodes for
  431 more than 1 board then just supply the number of boards you are using as a
  432 command line parameter to mkdevnods and it will create nodes for that number
  433 of boards. By default it will create device nodes for 1 board only.
  435 Note that if the driver is not installed at character major number 72 then
  436 you will need to edit the mkdevnods script and modify the STL_SERIALMAJOR
  437 variable to the major number you are using.
  439 Device nodes created for the normal serial port devices are named /dev/ttyEX
  440 where X is the port number. (The second boards ports will start from ttyE64,
  441 the third boards from ttyE128, etc). It will also create a set of modem call
  442 out devices named cueX where again X is the port number.
  444 For the most part the Stallion driver tries to emulate the standard PC system
  445 com ports and the standard sio serial driver. The idea is that you should
  446 be able to use Stallion board ports and com ports inter-changeably without
  447 modifying anything but the device name. Anything that doesn't work like that
  448 should be considered a bug in this driver!
  450 Since this driver tries to emulate the standard serial ports as much as
  451 possible then most system utilities should work as they do for the standard
  452 com ports. Most importantly "stty" works as expected and "comcontrol" can be
  453 used just like for the serial ports.
  455 This driver should work with anything that works on standard com serial ports.
  456 Having said that, I have used it on at least the following types of "things"
  457 under FreeBSD:
  458     a) standard dumb terminals (using getty)
  459     b) modems (using cu, etc)
  460     c) ppp (through pppd, kernel ppp)
  464 4. NOTES
  466 Be aware that these drivers are still very new, so there is sure to be some
  467 bugs in them. Please email me any feedback on bugs, problems, or even good
  468 experiences with these drivers!
  470 You can use both drivers at once if you have a mix of board types installed
  471 in a system. However to do this you will need to change the major number used
  472 by one of the drivers. Currently both drivers use default major number 72 for
  473 their devices. Change one driver to use some other major number (how this is
  474 achieved will depend on the kernel version you are using), and then modify the
  475 mkdevnods script to make device nodes based on those new major numbers. For
  476 example, you could change the stallion.c driver to use major number 73. You
  477 will also need to create device nodes with different names for the ports, for
  478 eg ttyFXXX.
  480 Currently the intelligent board driver (istallion.c) does not have the
  481 ability to share a boards memory region with other boards (you can only do
  482 this on EasyConnection 8/64 and ONboards normally anyway). It also does
  483 not currently support any memory address ranges above the low 1Mb region.
  484 These will be fixed in a future release of the driver.
  486 Finding a free physical memory address range can be a problem. The older
  487 boards like the Stallion and ONboard need large areas (64K or even 128K), so
  488 they can be very difficult to get into a system. If you have 16 Mb of RAM
  489 then you have no choice but to put them somewhere in the 640K -> 1Mb range.
  490 ONboards require 64K, so typically 0xd0000 is good, or 0xe0000 on some
  491 systems. If you have an original Stallion board, "V4.0" or Rev.O, then you
  492 need a 64K memory address space, so again 0xd0000 and 0xe0000 are good. Older
  493 Stallion boards are a much bigger problem. They need 128K of address space and
  494 must be on a 128K boundary. If you don't have a VGA card then 0xc0000 might be
  495 usable - there is really no other place you can put them below 1Mb.
  497 Both the ONboard and old Stallion boards can use higher memory addresses as
  498 well, but you must have less than 16Mb of RAM to be able to use them. Usual
  499 high memory addresses used include 0xec0000 and 0xf00000.
  501 The Brumby boards only require 16Kb of address space, so you can usually
  502 squeeze them in somewhere. Common addresses are 0xc8000, 0xcc000, or in
  503 the 0xd0000 range. EasyConnection 8/64 boards are even better, they only
  504 require 4Kb of address space, again usually 0xc8000, 0xcc000 or 0xd0000
  505 are good.
  507 If you are using an EasyConnection 8/64-EI or ONboard/E then usually the
  508 0xd0000 or 0xe0000 ranges are the best options below 1Mb. If neither of
  509 them can be used then the high memory support to use the really high address
  510 ranges is the best option. Typically the 2Gb range is convenient for them,
  511 and gets them well out of the way.
  513 The ports of the EasyIO-8M board do not have DCD or DTR signals. So these
  514 ports cannot be used as real modem devices. Generally when using these
  515 ports you should only use the cueX devices.
  517 There is a new utility in this package that reports statistics on the
  518 serial ports. You will need to have the ncurses library installed on your
  519 system to build it.
  521 To build the statistics display program type:
  522     make stlstats
  523 Once compiled simply run it (you will need to be root) and it will display
  524 a port summary for the first board and panel installed. Use the digits to
  525 select different board numbers, or 'n' to cycle through the panels on a
  526 board. To look at detailed port information then hit 'p', that will display
  527 detailed port 0 information. Use the digits and letters 'a' through 'f' to
  528 select the different ports (on this board and panel).
  534 This driver is loosely based on the code of the FreeBSD sio serial driver.
  535 A big thanks to Stallion Technologies for the use of their equipment.

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