The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System, Second Edition
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Name Size Last modified (GMT) Description
Back Parent directory 2008-12-15 13:02:48
Folder iavc/ 2005-05-05 21:42:01
File README 7623 bytes 2001-05-25 08:39:31
C file capi.h 4555 bytes 2005-05-05 21:42:00
C file capi_l4if.c 11188 bytes 2005-05-05 21:42:00
C file capi_llif.c 4965 bytes 2005-05-05 21:42:00
C file capi_msgs.c 26566 bytes 2005-05-05 21:42:00
C file capi_msgs.h 12606 bytes 2005-05-05 21:42:00

    1 $FreeBSD: src/sys/i4b/capi/README,v 1.1 2001/05/25 08:39:31 hm Exp $
    3 Message-ID: <>
    4 Date: Sun, 06 May 2001 18:06:47 +0300
    5 From: Juha-Matti Liukkonen <>
    6 Organization: Cubical Solutions Ltd
    8 Please find the attached diff and tarball for our support software for
    9 CAPI 2.0 and AVM's active T1 and T1-B (primary rate) and B1 (basic rate)
   10 ISDN adapters for isdn4bsd. The implementation has been made from
   11 scratch by us, based on reverse engineering of the Linux driver provided
   12 by AVM GmbH and available in Cubical Solutions Ltd offers
   13 this implementation for the BSD community free of charge and assuming
   14 absolutely no liabilities whatsoever. Feel free to modify the
   15 implementation any way you see fit, but please retain our one-liner
   16 copyright statement somewhere in the comment headers in the capi and
   17 iavc driver modules.
   19 That said, the attached tarball is i4b-00.96.00-beta with our
   20 modifications integrated, and the diff contains all modifications we
   21 have made to the original (including the new capi files). Our mods add
   22 pseudo-device i4bcapi, which attaches to i4b layer 4, and device iavc0,
   23 which implements a link layer driver for AVM's active B1 and T1 adapters
   24 for i4bcapi. There are also a couple of related improvements to isdnd,
   25 and a number of modifications to isdnd and layer 4 to implement support
   26 for up to 30 channels per adapter (for primary rate use).
   28 We have developed the software explicitly for our telephony application,
   29 to be used with AVM's T1 adapters, and the implementation has been
   30 tested primarily with this functionality in mind. There may be
   31 interesting side effects with eg. the ipr and isppp drivers; we do not
   32 use them and therefore their testing has been cursory at best. The
   33 i4btel driver works well with the T1 (our primary use), and the i4brbch
   34 driver has been verified to work with T1, T1-B and B1 adapters (ftp'd
   35 some files over a dialup PPP connection with each adapter). Only the PCI
   36 versions of the adapters (equipped with the AMCC DMA controller) are
   37 supported, although the basics (PIO mode communication) for the older
   38 ISA model support is in place, so only the bus attachment modules should
   39 be required to support the older hardware.
   41 All of the AVM active adapters use downloadable firmware, which is not
   42 included in the attached package. The firmware files (t1.t4, t1b.t4,
   43 b1.t4) can be found from in adapter specific subdirectories,
   44 or from the CDs provided with the adapters (in directory
   45 'cardware/firmware').
   47 Our primary development platform is our own embedded build (we call it
   48 'ebsd') based on FreeBSD 4.2-RELEASE. The implementation has also been
   49 tested on standard FreeBSD 4.2-RELEASE system. The implementation should
   50 not contain any FreeBSD (or even FreeBSD release) specific issues, but
   51 it has not been tested or even compiled on any other platforms;
   52 specifically, only the FreeBSD script is modified to
   53 install the capi/iavc support in the kernel source tree.
   55 This code is not under active development here since the functionality
   56 we use (i4btel, T1) has been working since the beginning of March. We
   57 are also not planning on any further development (no need seen at this
   58 point), but I am naturally interested on whatever bugs and development
   59 ideas pop up on the community and will keep a keen eye on the isdn
   60 mailing list. I personally may be available for consultation, debugging
   61 and possibly development projects, but with notable reservations on my
   62 time (the current IT industry recession seems to be pushing even more
   63 work for us, which tends to keep us pretty busy these days).
   65 Here are some specific technical notes:
   67 * isdnd supports new keyword 'firmware=</path/to/file>' in section
   68 'controller'. This keyword is supported for all controller types, and
   69 causes I4B_CTRL_DOWNLOAD ioctl to be invoked with the specified file as
   70 an argument. In systems equipped with both active and passive adapters,
   71 and the passive cards being detected first, dummy 'controller' entries
   72 are required for the passive cards to get the correct firmwares to
   73 correct adapters. (I hope you did not have other uses for this ioctl in
   74 mind?)
   76 * isdnd supports new keyword 'clone=<entry name>' in section 'entry'.
   77 This causes the entry to be copied from the existing named entry. At
   78 least entry specific 'name' and 'usrdeviceunit' values should be
   79 specified after a 'clone'. (Makes configuring 30 or 60 entries way much
   80 easier.)
   82 * a bug in i4btel driver read routine corrected. The conditions in the
   83 while() clause caused the receive queue to be referenced before checking
   84 if a channel is connected, leading to kernel panic (do a 'dd
   85 if=/dev/i4btel0 of=/dev/null' on an unconnected tel device, panic will
   86 follow). Correction was to reorder the while clause conditions to check
   87 for connectedness first.
   89 * isdnd and i4b layer 4 support up to CHANNELS_MAX (=30) channels per
   90 adapter. The msg_ctrl_info_req_t message reports the number of channels
   91 provided by the adapter, the number is stored in the nbchan field of the
   92 controller state structure. The fixed stateb1 and stateb2 entries in
   93 controller state stuctures are replaced with an array, and all fixed
   94 references there are replaced with loops up to nbchan. Passive stack
   95 layer 1 and 2 are not modified, layer 3 sets this field to fixed value 2
   96 for all adapters (but it could be delegated to the layer 1 driver's
   97 attach request).
   99 * the i4bcapi driver maps i4b channels to logical channels identified
  100 with PLCI/NCCI values in the CAPI protocol using the sc_bchan[] array.
  101 The PLCI/NCCI handling is merged in the channel mapping and is greatly
  102 simplified from the reference state machine model, because in practice
  103 there can be only one PLCI/NCCI per channel active at any given time.
  105 * the i4bcapi driver does not provide any kind of user level interface
  106 (such as the /dev/capi20 interface provided by the linux driver), but
  107 could relatively easily be extended to do so (and if done, interface
  108 compatibility with the linux implementation would probably be a good
  109 goal).
  111 * there are some gritty details in the iavc driver, inherited from the
  112 linux code. Despite us being a legitimate company in the telecom
  113 business, AVM failed to produce any programming reference material for
  114 us (at least in a reasonable time frame), so some guesswork remains due
  115 to classic reverse engineering process (particularly there are a few
  116 magic numbers in the card initialization sequence whose meaning I do not
  117 know).
  119 * pseudo-devices i4bq931, i4bq921 and some passive stack layer 1 driver
  120 (such as iwic) are required to compile, as the required ctrl_desc[]
  121 array is in layer 3, which requires layer 2, which requires layer 1.
  122 Some architectural cleanup would come in handy here, but we did not want
  123 to start making any major changes (and we use iwic in test setups
  124 anyway, so we simply always compile it in).
  126 To summarize: unpack, overinstall, add the following lines (with the
  127 usual passive stack configuration including at least one L1 driver) to
  128 your kernel configuration file:
  130 pseudo-device   "i4bcapi"
  131 device          iavc0
  133 ...and the following to your isdnd.rc:
  135 controller
  136 firmware = /usr/lib/isdn/b1.t4
  138 ...compile your new kernel, make sure the firmware file is in
  139 /usr/lib/isdn, and your B1 adapter should boot up and Just Work (tm). If
  140 you have multiple adapters, you need a 'controller' section for each to
  141 have them loaded and booted on isdnd startup.
  143 Have fun -- and let me know if there are any complications, or if I can
  144 be of further assistance,
  146         - Juha
  147 --
  148 Juha-Matti Liukkonen, Cubical Solutions Ltd
  149 Phone: +358(0)405280142
  150 Email:

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