The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System, Second Edition
Now available: The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System (Second Edition)


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FreeBSD/Linux Kernel Cross Reference
sys/kern/init_main.c

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    1 /*-
    2  * Copyright (c) 1995 Terrence R. Lambert
    3  * All rights reserved.
    4  *
    5  * Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993
    6  *      The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
    7  * (c) UNIX System Laboratories, Inc.
    8  * All or some portions of this file are derived from material licensed
    9  * to the University of California by American Telephone and Telegraph
   10  * Co. or Unix System Laboratories, Inc. and are reproduced herein with
   11  * the permission of UNIX System Laboratories, Inc.
   12  *
   13  * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
   14  * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
   15  * are met:
   16  * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
   17  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
   18  * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
   19  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
   20  *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
   21  * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
   22  *    must display the following acknowledgement:
   23  *      This product includes software developed by the University of
   24  *      California, Berkeley and its contributors.
   25  * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
   26  *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
   27  *    without specific prior written permission.
   28  *
   29  * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
   30  * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
   31  * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
   32  * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
   33  * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
   34  * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
   35  * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
   36  * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
   37  * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
   38  * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
   39  * SUCH DAMAGE.
   40  *
   41  *      @(#)init_main.c 8.9 (Berkeley) 1/21/94
   42  */
   43 
   44 #include <sys/cdefs.h>
   45 __FBSDID("$FreeBSD: stable/10/sys/kern/init_main.c 337471 2018-08-08 17:49:35Z bdrewery $");
   46 
   47 #include "opt_ddb.h"
   48 #include "opt_init_path.h"
   49 
   50 #include <sys/param.h>
   51 #include <sys/kernel.h>
   52 #include <sys/exec.h>
   53 #include <sys/file.h>
   54 #include <sys/filedesc.h>
   55 #include <sys/jail.h>
   56 #include <sys/ktr.h>
   57 #include <sys/lock.h>
   58 #include <sys/loginclass.h>
   59 #include <sys/mount.h>
   60 #include <sys/mutex.h>
   61 #include <sys/syscallsubr.h>
   62 #include <sys/sysctl.h>
   63 #include <sys/proc.h>
   64 #include <sys/racct.h>
   65 #include <sys/resourcevar.h>
   66 #include <sys/systm.h>
   67 #include <sys/signalvar.h>
   68 #include <sys/vnode.h>
   69 #include <sys/sysent.h>
   70 #include <sys/reboot.h>
   71 #include <sys/sched.h>
   72 #include <sys/sx.h>
   73 #include <sys/sysproto.h>
   74 #include <sys/vmmeter.h>
   75 #include <sys/unistd.h>
   76 #include <sys/malloc.h>
   77 #include <sys/conf.h>
   78 #include <sys/cpuset.h>
   79 
   80 #include <machine/cpu.h>
   81 
   82 #include <security/audit/audit.h>
   83 #include <security/mac/mac_framework.h>
   84 
   85 #include <vm/vm.h>
   86 #include <vm/vm_param.h>
   87 #include <vm/pmap.h>
   88 #include <vm/vm_map.h>
   89 #include <sys/copyright.h>
   90 
   91 #include <ddb/ddb.h>
   92 #include <ddb/db_sym.h>
   93 
   94 void mi_startup(void);                          /* Should be elsewhere */
   95 
   96 /* Components of the first process -- never freed. */
   97 static struct session session0;
   98 static struct pgrp pgrp0;
   99 struct  proc proc0;
  100 struct  thread thread0 __aligned(16);
  101 struct  vmspace vmspace0;
  102 struct  proc *initproc;
  103 
  104 #ifndef BOOTHOWTO
  105 #define BOOTHOWTO       0
  106 #endif
  107 int     boothowto = BOOTHOWTO;  /* initialized so that it can be patched */
  108 SYSCTL_INT(_debug, OID_AUTO, boothowto, CTLFLAG_RD, &boothowto, 0,
  109         "Boot control flags, passed from loader");
  110 
  111 #ifndef BOOTVERBOSE
  112 #define BOOTVERBOSE     0
  113 #endif
  114 int     bootverbose = BOOTVERBOSE;
  115 SYSCTL_INT(_debug, OID_AUTO, bootverbose, CTLFLAG_RW, &bootverbose, 0,
  116         "Control the output of verbose kernel messages");
  117 
  118 #ifdef INVARIANTS
  119 FEATURE(invariants, "Kernel compiled with INVARIANTS, may affect performance");
  120 #endif
  121 
  122 /*
  123  * This ensures that there is at least one entry so that the sysinit_set
  124  * symbol is not undefined.  A sybsystem ID of SI_SUB_DUMMY is never
  125  * executed.
  126  */
  127 SYSINIT(placeholder, SI_SUB_DUMMY, SI_ORDER_ANY, NULL, NULL);
  128 
  129 /*
  130  * The sysinit table itself.  Items are checked off as the are run.
  131  * If we want to register new sysinit types, add them to newsysinit.
  132  */
  133 SET_DECLARE(sysinit_set, struct sysinit);
  134 struct sysinit **sysinit, **sysinit_end;
  135 struct sysinit **newsysinit, **newsysinit_end;
  136 
  137 /*
  138  * Merge a new sysinit set into the current set, reallocating it if
  139  * necessary.  This can only be called after malloc is running.
  140  */
  141 void
  142 sysinit_add(struct sysinit **set, struct sysinit **set_end)
  143 {
  144         struct sysinit **newset;
  145         struct sysinit **sipp;
  146         struct sysinit **xipp;
  147         int count;
  148 
  149         count = set_end - set;
  150         if (newsysinit)
  151                 count += newsysinit_end - newsysinit;
  152         else
  153                 count += sysinit_end - sysinit;
  154         newset = malloc(count * sizeof(*sipp), M_TEMP, M_NOWAIT);
  155         if (newset == NULL)
  156                 panic("cannot malloc for sysinit");
  157         xipp = newset;
  158         if (newsysinit)
  159                 for (sipp = newsysinit; sipp < newsysinit_end; sipp++)
  160                         *xipp++ = *sipp;
  161         else
  162                 for (sipp = sysinit; sipp < sysinit_end; sipp++)
  163                         *xipp++ = *sipp;
  164         for (sipp = set; sipp < set_end; sipp++)
  165                 *xipp++ = *sipp;
  166         if (newsysinit)
  167                 free(newsysinit, M_TEMP);
  168         newsysinit = newset;
  169         newsysinit_end = newset + count;
  170 }
  171 
  172 #if defined (DDB) && defined(VERBOSE_SYSINIT)
  173 static const char *
  174 symbol_name(vm_offset_t va, db_strategy_t strategy)
  175 {
  176         const char *name;
  177         c_db_sym_t sym;
  178         db_expr_t  offset;
  179 
  180         if (va == 0)
  181                 return (NULL);
  182         sym = db_search_symbol(va, strategy, &offset);
  183         if (offset != 0)
  184                 return (NULL);
  185         db_symbol_values(sym, &name, NULL);
  186         return (name);
  187 }
  188 #endif
  189 
  190 /*
  191  * System startup; initialize the world, create process 0, mount root
  192  * filesystem, and fork to create init and pagedaemon.  Most of the
  193  * hard work is done in the lower-level initialization routines including
  194  * startup(), which does memory initialization and autoconfiguration.
  195  *
  196  * This allows simple addition of new kernel subsystems that require
  197  * boot time initialization.  It also allows substitution of subsystem
  198  * (for instance, a scheduler, kernel profiler, or VM system) by object
  199  * module.  Finally, it allows for optional "kernel threads".
  200  */
  201 void
  202 mi_startup(void)
  203 {
  204 
  205         register struct sysinit **sipp;         /* system initialization*/
  206         register struct sysinit **xipp;         /* interior loop of sort*/
  207         register struct sysinit *save;          /* bubble*/
  208 
  209 #if defined(VERBOSE_SYSINIT)
  210         int last;
  211         int verbose;
  212 #endif
  213 
  214         if (boothowto & RB_VERBOSE)
  215                 bootverbose++;
  216 
  217         if (sysinit == NULL) {
  218                 sysinit = SET_BEGIN(sysinit_set);
  219                 sysinit_end = SET_LIMIT(sysinit_set);
  220         }
  221 
  222 restart:
  223         /*
  224          * Perform a bubble sort of the system initialization objects by
  225          * their subsystem (primary key) and order (secondary key).
  226          */
  227         for (sipp = sysinit; sipp < sysinit_end; sipp++) {
  228                 for (xipp = sipp + 1; xipp < sysinit_end; xipp++) {
  229                         if ((*sipp)->subsystem < (*xipp)->subsystem ||
  230                              ((*sipp)->subsystem == (*xipp)->subsystem &&
  231                               (*sipp)->order <= (*xipp)->order))
  232                                 continue;       /* skip*/
  233                         save = *sipp;
  234                         *sipp = *xipp;
  235                         *xipp = save;
  236                 }
  237         }
  238 
  239 #if defined(VERBOSE_SYSINIT)
  240         last = SI_SUB_COPYRIGHT;
  241         verbose = 0;
  242 #if !defined(DDB)
  243         printf("VERBOSE_SYSINIT: DDB not enabled, symbol lookups disabled.\n");
  244 #endif
  245 #endif
  246 
  247         /*
  248          * Traverse the (now) ordered list of system initialization tasks.
  249          * Perform each task, and continue on to the next task.
  250          */
  251         for (sipp = sysinit; sipp < sysinit_end; sipp++) {
  252 
  253                 if ((*sipp)->subsystem == SI_SUB_DUMMY)
  254                         continue;       /* skip dummy task(s)*/
  255 
  256                 if ((*sipp)->subsystem == SI_SUB_DONE)
  257                         continue;
  258 
  259 #if defined(VERBOSE_SYSINIT)
  260                 if ((*sipp)->subsystem > last) {
  261                         verbose = 1;
  262                         last = (*sipp)->subsystem;
  263                         printf("subsystem %x\n", last);
  264                 }
  265                 if (verbose) {
  266 #if defined(DDB)
  267                         const char *func, *data;
  268 
  269                         func = symbol_name((vm_offset_t)(*sipp)->func,
  270                             DB_STGY_PROC);
  271                         data = symbol_name((vm_offset_t)(*sipp)->udata,
  272                             DB_STGY_ANY);
  273                         if (func != NULL && data != NULL)
  274                                 printf("   %s(&%s)... ", func, data);
  275                         else if (func != NULL)
  276                                 printf("   %s(%p)... ", func, (*sipp)->udata);
  277                         else
  278 #endif
  279                                 printf("   %p(%p)... ", (*sipp)->func,
  280                                     (*sipp)->udata);
  281                 }
  282 #endif
  283 
  284                 /* Call function */
  285                 (*((*sipp)->func))((*sipp)->udata);
  286 
  287 #if defined(VERBOSE_SYSINIT)
  288                 if (verbose)
  289                         printf("done.\n");
  290 #endif
  291 
  292                 /* Check off the one we're just done */
  293                 (*sipp)->subsystem = SI_SUB_DONE;
  294 
  295                 /* Check if we've installed more sysinit items via KLD */
  296                 if (newsysinit != NULL) {
  297                         if (sysinit != SET_BEGIN(sysinit_set))
  298                                 free(sysinit, M_TEMP);
  299                         sysinit = newsysinit;
  300                         sysinit_end = newsysinit_end;
  301                         newsysinit = NULL;
  302                         newsysinit_end = NULL;
  303                         goto restart;
  304                 }
  305         }
  306 
  307         mtx_assert(&Giant, MA_OWNED | MA_NOTRECURSED);
  308         mtx_unlock(&Giant);
  309 
  310         /*
  311          * Now hand over this thread to swapper.
  312          */
  313         swapper();
  314         /* NOTREACHED*/
  315 }
  316 
  317 
  318 /*
  319  ***************************************************************************
  320  ****
  321  **** The following SYSINIT's belong elsewhere, but have not yet
  322  **** been moved.
  323  ****
  324  ***************************************************************************
  325  */
  326 static void
  327 print_caddr_t(void *data)
  328 {
  329         printf("%s", (char *)data);
  330 }
  331 
  332 static void
  333 print_version(void *data __unused)
  334 {
  335         int len;
  336 
  337         /* Strip a trailing newline from version. */
  338         len = strlen(version);
  339         while (len > 0 && version[len - 1] == '\n')
  340                 len--;
  341         printf("%.*s %s\n", len, version, machine);
  342         printf("%s\n", compiler_version);
  343 }
  344 
  345 SYSINIT(announce, SI_SUB_COPYRIGHT, SI_ORDER_FIRST, print_caddr_t,
  346     copyright);
  347 SYSINIT(trademark, SI_SUB_COPYRIGHT, SI_ORDER_SECOND, print_caddr_t,
  348     trademark);
  349 SYSINIT(version, SI_SUB_COPYRIGHT, SI_ORDER_THIRD, print_version, NULL);
  350 
  351 #ifdef WITNESS
  352 static char wit_warn[] =
  353      "WARNING: WITNESS option enabled, expect reduced performance.\n";
  354 SYSINIT(witwarn, SI_SUB_COPYRIGHT, SI_ORDER_THIRD + 1,
  355    print_caddr_t, wit_warn);
  356 SYSINIT(witwarn2, SI_SUB_LAST, SI_ORDER_THIRD + 1,
  357    print_caddr_t, wit_warn);
  358 #endif
  359 
  360 #ifdef DIAGNOSTIC
  361 static char diag_warn[] =
  362      "WARNING: DIAGNOSTIC option enabled, expect reduced performance.\n";
  363 SYSINIT(diagwarn, SI_SUB_COPYRIGHT, SI_ORDER_THIRD + 2,
  364     print_caddr_t, diag_warn);
  365 SYSINIT(diagwarn2, SI_SUB_LAST, SI_ORDER_THIRD + 2,
  366     print_caddr_t, diag_warn);
  367 #endif
  368 
  369 static int
  370 null_fetch_syscall_args(struct thread *td __unused,
  371     struct syscall_args *sa __unused)
  372 {
  373 
  374         panic("null_fetch_syscall_args");
  375 }
  376 
  377 static void
  378 null_set_syscall_retval(struct thread *td __unused, int error __unused)
  379 {
  380 
  381         panic("null_set_syscall_retval");
  382 }
  383 
  384 struct sysentvec null_sysvec = {
  385         .sv_size        = 0,
  386         .sv_table       = NULL,
  387         .sv_mask        = 0,
  388         .sv_sigsize     = 0,
  389         .sv_sigtbl      = NULL,
  390         .sv_errsize     = 0,
  391         .sv_errtbl      = NULL,
  392         .sv_transtrap   = NULL,
  393         .sv_fixup       = NULL,
  394         .sv_sendsig     = NULL,
  395         .sv_sigcode     = NULL,
  396         .sv_szsigcode   = NULL,
  397         .sv_prepsyscall = NULL,
  398         .sv_name        = "null",
  399         .sv_coredump    = NULL,
  400         .sv_imgact_try  = NULL,
  401         .sv_minsigstksz = 0,
  402         .sv_pagesize    = PAGE_SIZE,
  403         .sv_minuser     = VM_MIN_ADDRESS,
  404         .sv_maxuser     = VM_MAXUSER_ADDRESS,
  405         .sv_usrstack    = USRSTACK,
  406         .sv_psstrings   = PS_STRINGS,
  407         .sv_stackprot   = VM_PROT_ALL,
  408         .sv_copyout_strings     = NULL,
  409         .sv_setregs     = NULL,
  410         .sv_fixlimit    = NULL,
  411         .sv_maxssiz     = NULL,
  412         .sv_flags       = 0,
  413         .sv_set_syscall_retval = null_set_syscall_retval,
  414         .sv_fetch_syscall_args = null_fetch_syscall_args,
  415         .sv_syscallnames = NULL,
  416         .sv_schedtail   = NULL,
  417         .sv_thread_detach = NULL,
  418         .sv_trap        = NULL,
  419 };
  420 
  421 /*
  422  ***************************************************************************
  423  ****
  424  **** The two following SYSINIT's are proc0 specific glue code.  I am not
  425  **** convinced that they can not be safely combined, but their order of
  426  **** operation has been maintained as the same as the original init_main.c
  427  **** for right now.
  428  ****
  429  **** These probably belong in init_proc.c or kern_proc.c, since they
  430  **** deal with proc0 (the fork template process).
  431  ****
  432  ***************************************************************************
  433  */
  434 /* ARGSUSED*/
  435 static void
  436 proc0_init(void *dummy __unused)
  437 {
  438         struct proc *p;
  439         struct thread *td;
  440         struct ucred *newcred;
  441         vm_paddr_t pageablemem;
  442         int i;
  443 
  444         GIANT_REQUIRED;
  445         p = &proc0;
  446         td = &thread0;
  447         
  448         /*
  449          * Initialize magic number and osrel.
  450          */
  451         p->p_magic = P_MAGIC;
  452         p->p_osrel = osreldate;
  453 
  454         /*
  455          * Initialize thread and process structures.
  456          */
  457         procinit();     /* set up proc zone */
  458         threadinit();   /* set up UMA zones */
  459 
  460         /*
  461          * Initialise scheduler resources.
  462          * Add scheduler specific parts to proc, thread as needed.
  463          */
  464         schedinit();    /* scheduler gets its house in order */
  465 
  466         /*
  467          * Create process 0 (the swapper).
  468          */
  469         LIST_INSERT_HEAD(&allproc, p, p_list);
  470         LIST_INSERT_HEAD(PIDHASH(0), p, p_hash);
  471         mtx_init(&pgrp0.pg_mtx, "process group", NULL, MTX_DEF | MTX_DUPOK);
  472         p->p_pgrp = &pgrp0;
  473         LIST_INSERT_HEAD(PGRPHASH(0), &pgrp0, pg_hash);
  474         LIST_INIT(&pgrp0.pg_members);
  475         LIST_INSERT_HEAD(&pgrp0.pg_members, p, p_pglist);
  476 
  477         pgrp0.pg_session = &session0;
  478         mtx_init(&session0.s_mtx, "session", NULL, MTX_DEF);
  479         refcount_init(&session0.s_count, 1);
  480         session0.s_leader = p;
  481 
  482         p->p_sysent = &null_sysvec;
  483         p->p_flag = P_SYSTEM | P_INMEM | P_KTHREAD;
  484         p->p_flag2 = 0;
  485         p->p_state = PRS_NORMAL;
  486         knlist_init_mtx(&p->p_klist, &p->p_mtx);
  487         STAILQ_INIT(&p->p_ktr);
  488         p->p_nice = NZERO;
  489         /* pid_max cannot be greater than PID_MAX */
  490         td->td_tid = PID_MAX + 1;
  491         LIST_INSERT_HEAD(TIDHASH(td->td_tid), td, td_hash);
  492         td->td_state = TDS_RUNNING;
  493         td->td_pri_class = PRI_TIMESHARE;
  494         td->td_user_pri = PUSER;
  495         td->td_base_user_pri = PUSER;
  496         td->td_lend_user_pri = PRI_MAX;
  497         td->td_priority = PVM;
  498         td->td_base_pri = PVM;
  499         td->td_oncpu = 0;
  500         td->td_flags = TDF_INMEM;
  501         td->td_pflags = TDP_KTHREAD;
  502         td->td_cpuset = cpuset_thread0();
  503         prison0_init();
  504         p->p_peers = 0;
  505         p->p_leader = p;
  506         p->p_reaper = p;
  507         LIST_INIT(&p->p_reaplist);
  508 
  509         strncpy(p->p_comm, "kernel", sizeof (p->p_comm));
  510         strncpy(td->td_name, "swapper", sizeof (td->td_name));
  511 
  512         callout_init_mtx(&p->p_itcallout, &p->p_mtx, 0);
  513         callout_init_mtx(&p->p_limco, &p->p_mtx, 0);
  514         callout_init(&td->td_slpcallout, 1);
  515 
  516         /* Create credentials. */
  517         newcred = crget();
  518         newcred->cr_ngroups = 1;        /* group 0 */
  519         newcred->cr_uidinfo = uifind(0);
  520         newcred->cr_ruidinfo = uifind(0);
  521         newcred->cr_prison = &prison0;
  522         newcred->cr_loginclass = loginclass_find("default");
  523         proc_set_cred_init(p, newcred);
  524 #ifdef AUDIT
  525         audit_cred_kproc0(newcred);
  526 #endif
  527 #ifdef MAC
  528         mac_cred_create_swapper(newcred);
  529 #endif
  530         td->td_ucred = crhold(newcred);
  531 
  532         /* Create sigacts. */
  533         p->p_sigacts = sigacts_alloc();
  534 
  535         /* Initialize signal state for process 0. */
  536         siginit(&proc0);
  537 
  538         /* Create the file descriptor table. */
  539         p->p_fd = fdinit(NULL);
  540         p->p_fdtol = NULL;
  541 
  542         /* Create the limits structures. */
  543         p->p_limit = lim_alloc();
  544         for (i = 0; i < RLIM_NLIMITS; i++)
  545                 p->p_limit->pl_rlimit[i].rlim_cur =
  546                     p->p_limit->pl_rlimit[i].rlim_max = RLIM_INFINITY;
  547         p->p_limit->pl_rlimit[RLIMIT_NOFILE].rlim_cur =
  548             p->p_limit->pl_rlimit[RLIMIT_NOFILE].rlim_max = maxfiles;
  549         p->p_limit->pl_rlimit[RLIMIT_NPROC].rlim_cur =
  550             p->p_limit->pl_rlimit[RLIMIT_NPROC].rlim_max = maxproc;
  551         p->p_limit->pl_rlimit[RLIMIT_DATA].rlim_cur = dfldsiz;
  552         p->p_limit->pl_rlimit[RLIMIT_DATA].rlim_max = maxdsiz;
  553         p->p_limit->pl_rlimit[RLIMIT_STACK].rlim_cur = dflssiz;
  554         p->p_limit->pl_rlimit[RLIMIT_STACK].rlim_max = maxssiz;
  555         /* Cast to avoid overflow on i386/PAE. */
  556         pageablemem = ptoa((vm_paddr_t)cnt.v_free_count);
  557         p->p_limit->pl_rlimit[RLIMIT_RSS].rlim_cur =
  558             p->p_limit->pl_rlimit[RLIMIT_RSS].rlim_max = pageablemem;
  559         p->p_limit->pl_rlimit[RLIMIT_MEMLOCK].rlim_cur = pageablemem / 3;
  560         p->p_limit->pl_rlimit[RLIMIT_MEMLOCK].rlim_max = pageablemem;
  561         p->p_cpulimit = RLIM_INFINITY;
  562 
  563         /* Initialize resource accounting structures. */
  564         racct_create(&p->p_racct);
  565 
  566         p->p_stats = pstats_alloc();
  567 
  568         /* Allocate a prototype map so we have something to fork. */
  569         pmap_pinit0(vmspace_pmap(&vmspace0));
  570         p->p_vmspace = &vmspace0;
  571         vmspace0.vm_refcnt = 1;
  572 
  573         /*
  574          * proc0 is not expected to enter usermode, so there is no special
  575          * handling for sv_minuser here, like is done for exec_new_vmspace().
  576          */
  577         vm_map_init(&vmspace0.vm_map, vmspace_pmap(&vmspace0),
  578             p->p_sysent->sv_minuser, p->p_sysent->sv_maxuser);
  579 
  580         /*
  581          * Call the init and ctor for the new thread and proc.  We wait
  582          * to do this until all other structures are fairly sane.
  583          */
  584         EVENTHANDLER_INVOKE(process_init, p);
  585         EVENTHANDLER_INVOKE(thread_init, td);
  586         EVENTHANDLER_INVOKE(process_ctor, p);
  587         EVENTHANDLER_INVOKE(thread_ctor, td);
  588 
  589         /*
  590          * Charge root for one process.
  591          */
  592         (void)chgproccnt(p->p_ucred->cr_ruidinfo, 1, 0);
  593         PROC_LOCK(p);
  594         racct_add_force(p, RACCT_NPROC, 1);
  595         PROC_UNLOCK(p);
  596 }
  597 SYSINIT(p0init, SI_SUB_INTRINSIC, SI_ORDER_FIRST, proc0_init, NULL);
  598 
  599 /* ARGSUSED*/
  600 static void
  601 proc0_post(void *dummy __unused)
  602 {
  603         struct timespec ts;
  604         struct proc *p;
  605         struct rusage ru;
  606         struct thread *td;
  607 
  608         /*
  609          * Now we can look at the time, having had a chance to verify the
  610          * time from the filesystem.  Pretend that proc0 started now.
  611          */
  612         sx_slock(&allproc_lock);
  613         FOREACH_PROC_IN_SYSTEM(p) {
  614                 PROC_LOCK(p);
  615                 if (p->p_state == PRS_NEW) {
  616                         PROC_UNLOCK(p);
  617                         continue;
  618                 }
  619                 microuptime(&p->p_stats->p_start);
  620                 PROC_STATLOCK(p);
  621                 rufetch(p, &ru);        /* Clears thread stats */
  622                 p->p_rux.rux_runtime = 0;
  623                 p->p_rux.rux_uticks = 0;
  624                 p->p_rux.rux_sticks = 0;
  625                 p->p_rux.rux_iticks = 0;
  626                 PROC_STATUNLOCK(p);
  627                 FOREACH_THREAD_IN_PROC(p, td) {
  628                         td->td_runtime = 0;
  629                 }
  630                 PROC_UNLOCK(p);
  631         }
  632         sx_sunlock(&allproc_lock);
  633         PCPU_SET(switchtime, cpu_ticks());
  634         PCPU_SET(switchticks, ticks);
  635 
  636         /*
  637          * Give the ``random'' number generator a thump.
  638          */
  639         nanotime(&ts);
  640         srandom(ts.tv_sec ^ ts.tv_nsec);
  641 }
  642 SYSINIT(p0post, SI_SUB_INTRINSIC_POST, SI_ORDER_FIRST, proc0_post, NULL);
  643 
  644 static void
  645 random_init(void *dummy __unused)
  646 {
  647 
  648         /*
  649          * After CPU has been started we have some randomness on most
  650          * platforms via get_cyclecount().  For platforms that don't
  651          * we will reseed random(9) in proc0_post() as well.
  652          */
  653         srandom(get_cyclecount());
  654 }
  655 SYSINIT(random, SI_SUB_RANDOM, SI_ORDER_FIRST, random_init, NULL);
  656 
  657 /*
  658  ***************************************************************************
  659  ****
  660  **** The following SYSINIT's and glue code should be moved to the
  661  **** respective files on a per subsystem basis.
  662  ****
  663  ***************************************************************************
  664  */
  665 
  666 
  667 /*
  668  ***************************************************************************
  669  ****
  670  **** The following code probably belongs in another file, like
  671  **** kern/init_init.c.
  672  ****
  673  ***************************************************************************
  674  */
  675 
  676 /*
  677  * List of paths to try when searching for "init".
  678  */
  679 static char init_path[MAXPATHLEN] =
  680 #ifdef  INIT_PATH
  681     __XSTRING(INIT_PATH);
  682 #else
  683     "/sbin/init:/sbin/oinit:/sbin/init.bak:/rescue/init";
  684 #endif
  685 SYSCTL_STRING(_kern, OID_AUTO, init_path, CTLFLAG_RD, init_path, 0,
  686         "Path used to search the init process");
  687 
  688 /*
  689  * Shutdown timeout of init(8).
  690  * Unused within kernel, but used to control init(8), hence do not remove.
  691  */
  692 #ifndef INIT_SHUTDOWN_TIMEOUT
  693 #define INIT_SHUTDOWN_TIMEOUT 120
  694 #endif
  695 static int init_shutdown_timeout = INIT_SHUTDOWN_TIMEOUT;
  696 SYSCTL_INT(_kern, OID_AUTO, init_shutdown_timeout,
  697         CTLFLAG_RW, &init_shutdown_timeout, 0, "Shutdown timeout of init(8). "
  698         "Unused within kernel, but used to control init(8)");
  699 
  700 /*
  701  * Start the initial user process; try exec'ing each pathname in init_path.
  702  * The program is invoked with one argument containing the boot flags.
  703  */
  704 static void
  705 start_init(void *dummy)
  706 {
  707         vm_offset_t addr;
  708         struct execve_args args;
  709         int options, error;
  710         char *var, *path, *next, *s;
  711         char *ucp, **uap, *arg0, *arg1;
  712         struct thread *td;
  713         struct proc *p;
  714 
  715         mtx_lock(&Giant);
  716 
  717         GIANT_REQUIRED;
  718 
  719         td = curthread;
  720         p = td->td_proc;
  721 
  722         vfs_mountroot();
  723 
  724         /* Wipe GELI passphrase from the environment. */
  725         unsetenv("kern.geom.eli.passphrase");
  726 
  727         /*
  728          * Need just enough stack to hold the faked-up "execve()" arguments.
  729          */
  730         addr = p->p_sysent->sv_usrstack - PAGE_SIZE;
  731         if (vm_map_find(&p->p_vmspace->vm_map, NULL, 0, &addr, PAGE_SIZE, 0,
  732             VMFS_NO_SPACE, VM_PROT_ALL, VM_PROT_ALL, 0) != 0)
  733                 panic("init: couldn't allocate argument space");
  734         p->p_vmspace->vm_maxsaddr = (caddr_t)addr;
  735         p->p_vmspace->vm_ssize = 1;
  736 
  737         if ((var = getenv("init_path")) != NULL) {
  738                 strlcpy(init_path, var, sizeof(init_path));
  739                 freeenv(var);
  740         }
  741         
  742         for (path = init_path; *path != '\0'; path = next) {
  743                 while (*path == ':')
  744                         path++;
  745                 if (*path == '\0')
  746                         break;
  747                 for (next = path; *next != '\0' && *next != ':'; next++)
  748                         /* nothing */ ;
  749                 if (bootverbose)
  750                         printf("start_init: trying %.*s\n", (int)(next - path),
  751                             path);
  752                         
  753                 /*
  754                  * Move out the boot flag argument.
  755                  */
  756                 options = 0;
  757                 ucp = (char *)p->p_sysent->sv_usrstack;
  758                 (void)subyte(--ucp, 0);         /* trailing zero */
  759                 if (boothowto & RB_SINGLE) {
  760                         (void)subyte(--ucp, 's');
  761                         options = 1;
  762                 }
  763 #ifdef notyet
  764                 if (boothowto & RB_FASTBOOT) {
  765                         (void)subyte(--ucp, 'f');
  766                         options = 1;
  767                 }
  768 #endif
  769 
  770 #ifdef BOOTCDROM
  771                 (void)subyte(--ucp, 'C');
  772                 options = 1;
  773 #endif
  774 
  775                 if (options == 0)
  776                         (void)subyte(--ucp, '-');
  777                 (void)subyte(--ucp, '-');               /* leading hyphen */
  778                 arg1 = ucp;
  779 
  780                 /*
  781                  * Move out the file name (also arg 0).
  782                  */
  783                 (void)subyte(--ucp, 0);
  784                 for (s = next - 1; s >= path; s--)
  785                         (void)subyte(--ucp, *s);
  786                 arg0 = ucp;
  787 
  788                 /*
  789                  * Move out the arg pointers.
  790                  */
  791                 uap = (char **)((intptr_t)ucp & ~(sizeof(intptr_t)-1));
  792                 (void)suword((caddr_t)--uap, (long)0);  /* terminator */
  793                 (void)suword((caddr_t)--uap, (long)(intptr_t)arg1);
  794                 (void)suword((caddr_t)--uap, (long)(intptr_t)arg0);
  795 
  796                 /*
  797                  * Point at the arguments.
  798                  */
  799                 args.fname = arg0;
  800                 args.argv = uap;
  801                 args.envv = NULL;
  802 
  803                 /*
  804                  * Now try to exec the program.  If can't for any reason
  805                  * other than it doesn't exist, complain.
  806                  *
  807                  * Otherwise, return via fork_trampoline() all the way
  808                  * to user mode as init!
  809                  */
  810                 if ((error = sys_execve(td, &args)) == 0) {
  811                         mtx_unlock(&Giant);
  812                         return;
  813                 }
  814                 if (error != ENOENT)
  815                         printf("exec %.*s: error %d\n", (int)(next - path), 
  816                             path, error);
  817         }
  818         printf("init: not found in path %s\n", init_path);
  819         panic("no init");
  820 }
  821 
  822 /*
  823  * Like kproc_create(), but runs in it's own address space.
  824  * We do this early to reserve pid 1.
  825  *
  826  * Note special case - do not make it runnable yet.  Other work
  827  * in progress will change this more.
  828  */
  829 static void
  830 create_init(const void *udata __unused)
  831 {
  832         struct ucred *newcred, *oldcred;
  833         int error;
  834 
  835         error = fork1(&thread0, RFFDG | RFPROC | RFSTOPPED, 0, &initproc,
  836             NULL, 0);
  837         if (error)
  838                 panic("cannot fork init: %d\n", error);
  839         KASSERT(initproc->p_pid == 1, ("create_init: initproc->p_pid != 1"));
  840         /* divorce init's credentials from the kernel's */
  841         newcred = crget();
  842         sx_xlock(&proctree_lock);
  843         PROC_LOCK(initproc);
  844         initproc->p_flag |= P_SYSTEM | P_INMEM;
  845         initproc->p_treeflag |= P_TREE_REAPER;
  846         LIST_INSERT_HEAD(&initproc->p_reaplist, &proc0, p_reapsibling);
  847         oldcred = initproc->p_ucred;
  848         crcopy(newcred, oldcred);
  849 #ifdef MAC
  850         mac_cred_create_init(newcred);
  851 #endif
  852 #ifdef AUDIT
  853         audit_cred_proc1(newcred);
  854 #endif
  855         proc_set_cred(initproc, newcred);
  856         PROC_UNLOCK(initproc);
  857         sx_xunlock(&proctree_lock);
  858         crfree(oldcred);
  859         cred_update_thread(FIRST_THREAD_IN_PROC(initproc));
  860         cpu_set_fork_handler(FIRST_THREAD_IN_PROC(initproc), start_init, NULL);
  861 }
  862 SYSINIT(init, SI_SUB_CREATE_INIT, SI_ORDER_FIRST, create_init, NULL);
  863 
  864 /*
  865  * Make it runnable now.
  866  */
  867 static void
  868 kick_init(const void *udata __unused)
  869 {
  870         struct thread *td;
  871 
  872         td = FIRST_THREAD_IN_PROC(initproc);
  873         thread_lock(td);
  874         TD_SET_CAN_RUN(td);
  875         sched_add(td, SRQ_BORING);
  876         thread_unlock(td);
  877 }
  878 SYSINIT(kickinit, SI_SUB_KTHREAD_INIT, SI_ORDER_FIRST, kick_init, NULL);

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