The Design and Implementation of the FreeBSD Operating System, Second Edition
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FreeBSD/Linux Kernel Cross Reference
sys/kern/kern_clock.c

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    1 /*-
    2  * Copyright (c) 1982, 1986, 1991, 1993
    3  *      The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
    4  * (c) UNIX System Laboratories, Inc.
    5  * All or some portions of this file are derived from material licensed
    6  * to the University of California by American Telephone and Telegraph
    7  * Co. or Unix System Laboratories, Inc. and are reproduced herein with
    8  * the permission of UNIX System Laboratories, Inc.
    9  *
   10  * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
   11  * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
   12  * are met:
   13  * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
   14  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
   15  * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
   16  *    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
   17  *    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
   18  * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
   19  *    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
   20  *    without specific prior written permission.
   21  *
   22  * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
   23  * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
   24  * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
   25  * ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
   26  * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
   27  * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
   28  * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
   29  * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
   30  * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
   31  * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
   32  * SUCH DAMAGE.
   33  *
   34  *      @(#)kern_clock.c        8.5 (Berkeley) 1/21/94
   35  */
   36 
   37 #include <sys/cdefs.h>
   38 __FBSDID("$FreeBSD$");
   39 
   40 #include "opt_kdb.h"
   41 #include "opt_device_polling.h"
   42 #include "opt_hwpmc_hooks.h"
   43 #include "opt_ntp.h"
   44 #include "opt_watchdog.h"
   45 
   46 #include <sys/param.h>
   47 #include <sys/systm.h>
   48 #include <sys/callout.h>
   49 #include <sys/kdb.h>
   50 #include <sys/kernel.h>
   51 #include <sys/lock.h>
   52 #include <sys/ktr.h>
   53 #include <sys/mutex.h>
   54 #include <sys/proc.h>
   55 #include <sys/resource.h>
   56 #include <sys/resourcevar.h>
   57 #include <sys/sched.h>
   58 #include <sys/signalvar.h>
   59 #include <sys/smp.h>
   60 #include <vm/vm.h>
   61 #include <vm/pmap.h>
   62 #include <vm/vm_map.h>
   63 #include <sys/sysctl.h>
   64 #include <sys/bus.h>
   65 #include <sys/interrupt.h>
   66 #include <sys/limits.h>
   67 #include <sys/timetc.h>
   68 
   69 #ifdef GPROF
   70 #include <sys/gmon.h>
   71 #endif
   72 
   73 #ifdef HWPMC_HOOKS
   74 #include <sys/pmckern.h>
   75 #endif
   76 
   77 #ifdef DEVICE_POLLING
   78 extern void hardclock_device_poll(void);
   79 #endif /* DEVICE_POLLING */
   80 
   81 static void initclocks(void *dummy);
   82 SYSINIT(clocks, SI_SUB_CLOCKS, SI_ORDER_FIRST, initclocks, NULL)
   83 
   84 /* Some of these don't belong here, but it's easiest to concentrate them. */
   85 long cp_time[CPUSTATES];
   86 
   87 /* Spin-lock protecting profiling statistics. */
   88 static struct mtx time_lock;
   89 
   90 static int
   91 sysctl_kern_cp_time(SYSCTL_HANDLER_ARGS)
   92 {
   93         int error;
   94 #ifdef SCTL_MASK32
   95         int i;
   96         unsigned int cp_time32[CPUSTATES];
   97 
   98         if (req->flags & SCTL_MASK32) {
   99                 if (!req->oldptr)
  100                         return SYSCTL_OUT(req, 0, sizeof(cp_time32));
  101                 for (i = 0; i < CPUSTATES; i++)
  102                         cp_time32[i] = (unsigned int)cp_time[i];
  103                 error = SYSCTL_OUT(req, cp_time32, sizeof(cp_time32));
  104         } else
  105 #endif
  106         {
  107                 if (!req->oldptr)
  108                         return SYSCTL_OUT(req, 0, sizeof(cp_time));
  109                 error = SYSCTL_OUT(req, cp_time, sizeof(cp_time));
  110         }
  111         return error;
  112 }
  113 
  114 SYSCTL_PROC(_kern, OID_AUTO, cp_time, CTLTYPE_LONG|CTLFLAG_RD,
  115     0,0, sysctl_kern_cp_time, "LU", "CPU time statistics");
  116 
  117 #ifdef SW_WATCHDOG
  118 #include <sys/watchdog.h>
  119 
  120 static int watchdog_ticks;
  121 static int watchdog_enabled;
  122 static void watchdog_fire(void);
  123 static void watchdog_config(void *, u_int, int *);
  124 #endif /* SW_WATCHDOG */
  125 
  126 /*
  127  * Clock handling routines.
  128  *
  129  * This code is written to operate with two timers that run independently of
  130  * each other.
  131  *
  132  * The main timer, running hz times per second, is used to trigger interval
  133  * timers, timeouts and rescheduling as needed.
  134  *
  135  * The second timer handles kernel and user profiling,
  136  * and does resource use estimation.  If the second timer is programmable,
  137  * it is randomized to avoid aliasing between the two clocks.  For example,
  138  * the randomization prevents an adversary from always giving up the cpu
  139  * just before its quantum expires.  Otherwise, it would never accumulate
  140  * cpu ticks.  The mean frequency of the second timer is stathz.
  141  *
  142  * If no second timer exists, stathz will be zero; in this case we drive
  143  * profiling and statistics off the main clock.  This WILL NOT be accurate;
  144  * do not do it unless absolutely necessary.
  145  *
  146  * The statistics clock may (or may not) be run at a higher rate while
  147  * profiling.  This profile clock runs at profhz.  We require that profhz
  148  * be an integral multiple of stathz.
  149  *
  150  * If the statistics clock is running fast, it must be divided by the ratio
  151  * profhz/stathz for statistics.  (For profiling, every tick counts.)
  152  *
  153  * Time-of-day is maintained using a "timecounter", which may or may
  154  * not be related to the hardware generating the above mentioned
  155  * interrupts.
  156  */
  157 
  158 int     stathz;
  159 int     profhz;
  160 int     profprocs;
  161 int     ticks;
  162 int     psratio;
  163 
  164 /*
  165  * Initialize clock frequencies and start both clocks running.
  166  */
  167 /* ARGSUSED*/
  168 static void
  169 initclocks(dummy)
  170         void *dummy;
  171 {
  172         register int i;
  173 
  174         /*
  175          * Set divisors to 1 (normal case) and let the machine-specific
  176          * code do its bit.
  177          */
  178         mtx_init(&time_lock, "time lock", NULL, MTX_SPIN);
  179         cpu_initclocks();
  180 
  181         /*
  182          * Compute profhz/stathz, and fix profhz if needed.
  183          */
  184         i = stathz ? stathz : hz;
  185         if (profhz == 0)
  186                 profhz = i;
  187         psratio = profhz / i;
  188 #ifdef SW_WATCHDOG
  189         EVENTHANDLER_REGISTER(watchdog_list, watchdog_config, NULL, 0);
  190 #endif
  191 }
  192 
  193 /*
  194  * Each time the real-time timer fires, this function is called on all CPUs.
  195  * Note that hardclock() calls hardclock_cpu() for the boot CPU, so only
  196  * the other CPUs in the system need to call this function.
  197  */
  198 void
  199 hardclock_cpu(int usermode)
  200 {
  201         struct pstats *pstats;
  202         struct thread *td = curthread;
  203         struct proc *p = td->td_proc;
  204         int flags;
  205 
  206         /*
  207          * Run current process's virtual and profile time, as needed.
  208          */
  209         pstats = p->p_stats;
  210         flags = 0;
  211         if (usermode &&
  212             timevalisset(&pstats->p_timer[ITIMER_VIRTUAL].it_value)) {
  213                 PROC_SLOCK(p);
  214                 if (itimerdecr(&pstats->p_timer[ITIMER_VIRTUAL], tick) == 0)
  215                         flags |= TDF_ALRMPEND | TDF_ASTPENDING;
  216                 PROC_SUNLOCK(p);
  217         }
  218         if (timevalisset(&pstats->p_timer[ITIMER_PROF].it_value)) {
  219                 PROC_SLOCK(p);
  220                 if (itimerdecr(&pstats->p_timer[ITIMER_PROF], tick) == 0)
  221                         flags |= TDF_PROFPEND | TDF_ASTPENDING;
  222                 PROC_SUNLOCK(p);
  223         }
  224         thread_lock(td);
  225         sched_tick();
  226         td->td_flags |= flags;
  227         thread_unlock(td);
  228 
  229 #ifdef  HWPMC_HOOKS
  230         if (PMC_CPU_HAS_SAMPLES(PCPU_GET(cpuid)))
  231                 PMC_CALL_HOOK_UNLOCKED(curthread, PMC_FN_DO_SAMPLES, NULL);
  232 #endif
  233 }
  234 
  235 /*
  236  * The real-time timer, interrupting hz times per second.
  237  */
  238 void
  239 hardclock(int usermode, uintfptr_t pc)
  240 {
  241         int need_softclock = 0;
  242 
  243         hardclock_cpu(usermode);
  244 
  245         tc_ticktock();
  246         /*
  247          * If no separate statistics clock is available, run it from here.
  248          *
  249          * XXX: this only works for UP
  250          */
  251         if (stathz == 0) {
  252                 profclock(usermode, pc);
  253                 statclock(usermode);
  254         }
  255 
  256 #ifdef DEVICE_POLLING
  257         hardclock_device_poll();        /* this is very short and quick */
  258 #endif /* DEVICE_POLLING */
  259 
  260         /*
  261          * Process callouts at a very low cpu priority, so we don't keep the
  262          * relatively high clock interrupt priority any longer than necessary.
  263          */
  264         mtx_lock_spin_flags(&callout_lock, MTX_QUIET);
  265         ticks++;
  266         if (!TAILQ_EMPTY(&callwheel[ticks & callwheelmask])) {
  267                 need_softclock = 1;
  268         } else if (softticks + 1 == ticks)
  269                 ++softticks;
  270         mtx_unlock_spin_flags(&callout_lock, MTX_QUIET);
  271 
  272         /*
  273          * swi_sched acquires the thread lock, so we don't want to call it
  274          * with callout_lock held; incorrect locking order.
  275          */
  276         if (need_softclock)
  277                 swi_sched(softclock_ih, 0);
  278 
  279 #ifdef SW_WATCHDOG
  280         if (watchdog_enabled > 0 && --watchdog_ticks <= 0)
  281                 watchdog_fire();
  282 #endif /* SW_WATCHDOG */
  283 }
  284 
  285 /*
  286  * Compute number of ticks in the specified amount of time.
  287  */
  288 int
  289 tvtohz(tv)
  290         struct timeval *tv;
  291 {
  292         register unsigned long ticks;
  293         register long sec, usec;
  294 
  295         /*
  296          * If the number of usecs in the whole seconds part of the time
  297          * difference fits in a long, then the total number of usecs will
  298          * fit in an unsigned long.  Compute the total and convert it to
  299          * ticks, rounding up and adding 1 to allow for the current tick
  300          * to expire.  Rounding also depends on unsigned long arithmetic
  301          * to avoid overflow.
  302          *
  303          * Otherwise, if the number of ticks in the whole seconds part of
  304          * the time difference fits in a long, then convert the parts to
  305          * ticks separately and add, using similar rounding methods and
  306          * overflow avoidance.  This method would work in the previous
  307          * case but it is slightly slower and assumes that hz is integral.
  308          *
  309          * Otherwise, round the time difference down to the maximum
  310          * representable value.
  311          *
  312          * If ints have 32 bits, then the maximum value for any timeout in
  313          * 10ms ticks is 248 days.
  314          */
  315         sec = tv->tv_sec;
  316         usec = tv->tv_usec;
  317         if (usec < 0) {
  318                 sec--;
  319                 usec += 1000000;
  320         }
  321         if (sec < 0) {
  322 #ifdef DIAGNOSTIC
  323                 if (usec > 0) {
  324                         sec++;
  325                         usec -= 1000000;
  326                 }
  327                 printf("tvotohz: negative time difference %ld sec %ld usec\n",
  328                        sec, usec);
  329 #endif
  330                 ticks = 1;
  331         } else if (sec <= LONG_MAX / 1000000)
  332                 ticks = (sec * 1000000 + (unsigned long)usec + (tick - 1))
  333                         / tick + 1;
  334         else if (sec <= LONG_MAX / hz)
  335                 ticks = sec * hz
  336                         + ((unsigned long)usec + (tick - 1)) / tick + 1;
  337         else
  338                 ticks = LONG_MAX;
  339         if (ticks > INT_MAX)
  340                 ticks = INT_MAX;
  341         return ((int)ticks);
  342 }
  343 
  344 /*
  345  * Start profiling on a process.
  346  *
  347  * Kernel profiling passes proc0 which never exits and hence
  348  * keeps the profile clock running constantly.
  349  */
  350 void
  351 startprofclock(p)
  352         register struct proc *p;
  353 {
  354 
  355         PROC_LOCK_ASSERT(p, MA_OWNED);
  356         if (p->p_flag & P_STOPPROF)
  357                 return;
  358         if ((p->p_flag & P_PROFIL) == 0) {
  359                 p->p_flag |= P_PROFIL;
  360                 mtx_lock_spin(&time_lock);
  361                 if (++profprocs == 1)
  362                         cpu_startprofclock();
  363                 mtx_unlock_spin(&time_lock);
  364         }
  365 }
  366 
  367 /*
  368  * Stop profiling on a process.
  369  */
  370 void
  371 stopprofclock(p)
  372         register struct proc *p;
  373 {
  374 
  375         PROC_LOCK_ASSERT(p, MA_OWNED);
  376         if (p->p_flag & P_PROFIL) {
  377                 if (p->p_profthreads != 0) {
  378                         p->p_flag |= P_STOPPROF;
  379                         while (p->p_profthreads != 0)
  380                                 msleep(&p->p_profthreads, &p->p_mtx, PPAUSE,
  381                                     "stopprof", 0);
  382                         p->p_flag &= ~P_STOPPROF;
  383                 }
  384                 if ((p->p_flag & P_PROFIL) == 0)
  385                         return;
  386                 p->p_flag &= ~P_PROFIL;
  387                 mtx_lock_spin(&time_lock);
  388                 if (--profprocs == 0)
  389                         cpu_stopprofclock();
  390                 mtx_unlock_spin(&time_lock);
  391         }
  392 }
  393 
  394 /*
  395  * Statistics clock.  Updates rusage information and calls the scheduler
  396  * to adjust priorities of the active thread.
  397  *
  398  * This should be called by all active processors.
  399  */
  400 void
  401 statclock(int usermode)
  402 {
  403         struct rusage *ru;
  404         struct vmspace *vm;
  405         struct thread *td;
  406         struct proc *p;
  407         long rss;
  408 
  409         td = curthread;
  410         p = td->td_proc;
  411 
  412         thread_lock_flags(td, MTX_QUIET);
  413         if (usermode) {
  414                 /*
  415                  * Charge the time as appropriate.
  416                  */
  417 #ifdef KSE
  418                 if (p->p_flag & P_SA)
  419                         thread_statclock(1);
  420 #endif
  421                 td->td_uticks++;
  422                 if (p->p_nice > NZERO)
  423                         atomic_add_long(&cp_time[CP_NICE], 1);
  424                 else
  425                         atomic_add_long(&cp_time[CP_USER], 1);
  426         } else {
  427                 /*
  428                  * Came from kernel mode, so we were:
  429                  * - handling an interrupt,
  430                  * - doing syscall or trap work on behalf of the current
  431                  *   user process, or
  432                  * - spinning in the idle loop.
  433                  * Whichever it is, charge the time as appropriate.
  434                  * Note that we charge interrupts to the current process,
  435                  * regardless of whether they are ``for'' that process,
  436                  * so that we know how much of its real time was spent
  437                  * in ``non-process'' (i.e., interrupt) work.
  438                  */
  439                 if ((td->td_pflags & TDP_ITHREAD) ||
  440                     td->td_intr_nesting_level >= 2) {
  441                         td->td_iticks++;
  442                         atomic_add_long(&cp_time[CP_INTR], 1);
  443                 } else {
  444 #ifdef KSE
  445                         if (p->p_flag & P_SA)
  446                                 thread_statclock(0);
  447 #endif
  448                         td->td_pticks++;
  449                         td->td_sticks++;
  450                         if (!TD_IS_IDLETHREAD(td))
  451                                 atomic_add_long(&cp_time[CP_SYS], 1);
  452                         else
  453                                 atomic_add_long(&cp_time[CP_IDLE], 1);
  454                 }
  455         }
  456 
  457         /* Update resource usage integrals and maximums. */
  458         MPASS(p->p_vmspace != NULL);
  459         vm = p->p_vmspace;
  460         ru = &td->td_ru;
  461         ru->ru_ixrss += pgtok(vm->vm_tsize);
  462         ru->ru_idrss += pgtok(vm->vm_dsize);
  463         ru->ru_isrss += pgtok(vm->vm_ssize);
  464         rss = pgtok(vmspace_resident_count(vm));
  465         if (ru->ru_maxrss < rss)
  466                 ru->ru_maxrss = rss;
  467         CTR4(KTR_SCHED, "statclock: %p(%s) prio %d stathz %d",
  468             td, td->td_proc->p_comm, td->td_priority, (stathz)?stathz:hz);
  469         sched_clock(td);
  470         thread_unlock(td);
  471 }
  472 
  473 void
  474 profclock(int usermode, uintfptr_t pc)
  475 {
  476         struct thread *td;
  477 #ifdef GPROF
  478         struct gmonparam *g;
  479         uintfptr_t i;
  480 #endif
  481 
  482         td = curthread;
  483         if (usermode) {
  484                 /*
  485                  * Came from user mode; CPU was in user state.
  486                  * If this process is being profiled, record the tick.
  487                  * if there is no related user location yet, don't
  488                  * bother trying to count it.
  489                  */
  490                 if (td->td_proc->p_flag & P_PROFIL)
  491                         addupc_intr(td, pc, 1);
  492         }
  493 #ifdef GPROF
  494         else {
  495                 /*
  496                  * Kernel statistics are just like addupc_intr, only easier.
  497                  */
  498                 g = &_gmonparam;
  499                 if (g->state == GMON_PROF_ON && pc >= g->lowpc) {
  500                         i = PC_TO_I(g, pc);
  501                         if (i < g->textsize) {
  502                                 KCOUNT(g, i)++;
  503                         }
  504                 }
  505         }
  506 #endif
  507 }
  508 
  509 /*
  510  * Return information about system clocks.
  511  */
  512 static int
  513 sysctl_kern_clockrate(SYSCTL_HANDLER_ARGS)
  514 {
  515         struct clockinfo clkinfo;
  516         /*
  517          * Construct clockinfo structure.
  518          */
  519         bzero(&clkinfo, sizeof(clkinfo));
  520         clkinfo.hz = hz;
  521         clkinfo.tick = tick;
  522         clkinfo.profhz = profhz;
  523         clkinfo.stathz = stathz ? stathz : hz;
  524         return (sysctl_handle_opaque(oidp, &clkinfo, sizeof clkinfo, req));
  525 }
  526 
  527 SYSCTL_PROC(_kern, KERN_CLOCKRATE, clockrate, CTLTYPE_STRUCT|CTLFLAG_RD,
  528         0, 0, sysctl_kern_clockrate, "S,clockinfo",
  529         "Rate and period of various kernel clocks");
  530 
  531 #ifdef SW_WATCHDOG
  532 
  533 static void
  534 watchdog_config(void *unused __unused, u_int cmd, int *error)
  535 {
  536         u_int u;
  537 
  538         u = cmd & WD_INTERVAL;
  539         if (u >= WD_TO_1SEC) {
  540                 watchdog_ticks = (1 << (u - WD_TO_1SEC)) * hz;
  541                 watchdog_enabled = 1;
  542                 *error = 0;
  543         } else {
  544                 watchdog_enabled = 0;
  545         }
  546 }
  547 
  548 /*
  549  * Handle a watchdog timeout by dumping interrupt information and
  550  * then either dropping to DDB or panicking.
  551  */
  552 static void
  553 watchdog_fire(void)
  554 {
  555         int nintr;
  556         u_int64_t inttotal;
  557         u_long *curintr;
  558         char *curname;
  559 
  560         curintr = intrcnt;
  561         curname = intrnames;
  562         inttotal = 0;
  563         nintr = eintrcnt - intrcnt;
  564 
  565         printf("interrupt                   total\n");
  566         while (--nintr >= 0) {
  567                 if (*curintr)
  568                         printf("%-12s %20lu\n", curname, *curintr);
  569                 curname += strlen(curname) + 1;
  570                 inttotal += *curintr++;
  571         }
  572         printf("Total        %20ju\n", (uintmax_t)inttotal);
  573 
  574 #if defined(KDB) && !defined(KDB_UNATTENDED)
  575         kdb_backtrace();
  576         kdb_enter("watchdog timeout");
  577 #else
  578         panic("watchdog timeout");
  579 #endif
  580 }
  581 
  582 #endif /* SW_WATCHDOG */

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